Configuration

Print version

5. Configuration

5.1. Introduction

Controls

The following configuration buttons are used for configuration:

ApplyApply and save parameters.
CancelSet parameters are overwritten with original values.
RefreshReload all current values of the unit / both units.
Show defaultsClicking the button displays the default values of all individual parameters on the current screen. To use these values, you must click on the “Apply” button.
Show backupClicking the button displays the values of individual parameters held in the backup file (Backup/Settings/Open file upload). To use any of these values, you must use the “Apply” button. For loading the backup configuration see menu Tools/Maintenance/Backup.
StartActivating automatic refresh fields marked by icon using the Start button with the frequency circa 1 sec.
StopUse the “Stop” button to stop automatic refresh of displayed information with 1sec period. Date and time values are refreshed anyway.
Configuration Controls

Fig. 5.1: Configuration Controls


Help

The microwave link configuration system is equipped with built in Help – see Help section. The Help is accessible in two forms:

  • Configuration parameter context help. The help text is displayed in the pop-up window after clicking the parameter name.

  • The whole user interface help, activated by clicking the Help menu.

Login

You can login into the configuration interface using either the insecure HTTP protocol (default login screen), or the secure HTTPS protocol. You should select the connection method on the login screen. If the HTTPS protocol is used, it is not possible to tap the network communication and acquire the station’s login information.

Login

Fig. 5.2: Login


[Note]Note

Antenna alignment link below Login window activates smartphone Antenna alignment tool. See its detailed description in chapter Live data.

Rollback function

If you interrupt the connection on an operating link by entering inappropriate radio link parameters, the original parameters will be restored after 1 minute. The connection is automatically restored.

5.2. Status bar

Status bar 1

Fig. 5.3: Status bar 1


The Status bar is located on the upper part of the screen below the title bar. It consists of 3 fields:

  • Local unit status (unit assigned to the IP address entered in the browser or CLI)

  • Local to Peer Link status.

  • Peer unit status.

Local and Peer field displays:

  • Station name according to configuration.

  • Actual time valid for respective unit.

  • Warning or Alarm icon in case of warning or alarm.

Link field display:

  • Status of the link between both sides of the microwave link.

  • Warning icon when the link is not capable of user data transfer.

The Link status can be one of the following values:

 UNKNOWNUnit start up. The initialization is not yet finished.
 SETUPUnit initialization according to valid configuration.
 SINGLEUnit in operation status. Link to peer unit is not established.
 CONNECTINGConnection to peer unit in progress.
 AUTHORIZINGAuthorization of the peer unit in progress.
 OKLink is connected. Peer unit is authorized.
 ANALYZERSpectrum analyzer mode active. User data are not transferred.

All link states except for the state of OK are highlighted with a triangle.:

Status bar 2

Fig. 5.4: Status bar 2


Example of a complete page – status bar, menu and control buttons:

5.3. Status

The “Status” menu provides basic information about local and remote station. Information is valid the moment the page is open, or the Refresh button is hit.
The Status/Brief tab shows only the most important values whereas the Status/Detailed tab provides further details. Below is a list of all values according to the tab Status/Detailed .
The icon marks fields which are automatically updated with 30 sec period (or 1 sec when the “Start” button is active).

Menu Status - Brief (example)

Fig. 5.5: Menu Status – Brief (example)


Menu Status - Detailed (example)

Fig. 5.6: Menu Status – Detailed (example)


5.3.1. Status – General

Product codeUnit product code – is the same as the Ordering code.
Serial no.Unit serial number.
Station nameStation name (for example to reflect the unit location in the network topology).
Station locationStation location (for example GPS position or to reflect the network topology hierarchy).
Radio SW versionSoftware defined radio version.
Firmware versionUnit’s firmware version.
Date, TimeThe internal real-time clock. The clock is set manually or it is synchronized with NTP server and set for both units.
Inside temperature [°C]Temperature inside the unit (on the modem board).
Voltage [V]Unit’s power supply voltage level.

5.3.2. Status – Radio

Band indexRadio unit type: L (Lower) or U (Upper) part of the frequency band.
TX polarizationHorizontal or vertical polarization based on the physical installation. Indicates the polarization of the transmitted signal. Local and Peer are indicated separately. The proper position of the cable is sideways down.
Notice for RAy3-17 and RAy3-24 links: One side of the link must be installed in vertical polarization and the other in horizontal polarization.
Frequency tableDisplays the currently used frequency table in format <name:version>.
Net bitrate [Mbps]Current transfer capacity of radio channel for user data.
Max. net bitrate [Mbps]The maximum RF channel capacity according to installed feature key.
Bandwidth [MHz]One of the standard channel widths can be selected. This parameter must be set identically in local and remote.
TX and RX channel [GHz]Used channels. Both number of the channel and frequency in GHz are listed.
TX modulationModulation type currently used for transmitting. When adaptive modulation is enabled, the ACM letters are displayed as well as information about maximum permitted modulation: “current modulation ACM / maximum modulation”
TX power [dBm]Current output power on the RF channel in dBm. If ATPC is enabled, the ATPC letters are displayed as well as information about maximum permitted power: “current power ATPC / maximum power”
RSS [dBm]Received signal strength. If ATPC is enabled, the ATPC letters are displayed as well as information about threshold value for activation of power control loop: “current RSS ATPC / threshold RSS”
MSE [dB]Mean Square Error (the inverse to often used SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio). If ATPC is enabled, the ATPC letters are displayed as well as information about threshold value for activation of power control loop: “current MSE ATPC / threshold MSE”
BER [-]Bit Error Rate is registered at the receiving end; instantaneous value.
Link uptimeTime elapsed since the current link connection has been established.

5.3.3. Status – Switch interface

Egress rate limit Air
Status of the Egress rate limiter on the Air interface. The traffic can be limited according to bits per second or frames per second.
Message format for bits per second: “xx.xx Mbps Ly auto” where:
 xx.xx MbpsEgress speed limit.
 LyL1/L2/L3 which Ethernet layer is used for speed calculation.
 autogives information about active Speed guard function.
Message format for frames per second: “xx.xx fps” where:
 xx.xx fpsEgress frames per second limit.
Link mode Eth1, 2Status of Ethernet interface. Current bit rate (10 = 10BASE-T, 100 = 100BASE-TX and 1000 = 1000BASE-T) and state of duplex (FD = full duplex, HD = half duplex).

5.3.4. Status – Service access

MAC addressHW address of the Ethernet module.
IPv4 addressIP address in the standard dotted decimal notation, including the bit width of netmask after the forward slash.
Management VLANService access via VLAN management only.
ServicesServices enabled for unit management and monitoring (Web, Telnet, SSH, SNMP, NTP).

5.3.5. Status – Radio link statistics

Information on statistical data:
Statistics ClearedTime of log clearing.
Statistics PeriodPeriod of log refresh.
Radio link statistics:
Overall Link UptimeOverall time the link has been connected.
Overall Link DowntimeOverall time the link has been disconnected.
Reliability [%]The ratio of “Uptime” and “Downtime”.
Current Link UptimeCurrent time the link has been connected.
The Longest DropThe longest downtime period recorded.
The Last DropLength of the last link interruption.
Number of DropsNumber of link interruptions.

5.4. Link settings

5.4.1. General

Setup of general parameters of the link.

Menu Link settings / General

Fig. 5.7: Menu Link settings / General


Product codeUnit type indicator.
Serial no.Unit serial number.
IPv4 addressIP address in the standard dotted decimal notation, including the bit width of netmask after the forward slash.
Station nameStation name can be modified by user (for example to reflect the unit location in the network topology).
Station locationStation location can be modified by user (for example to reflect the network topology hierarchy).
Date, TimeThe internal real-time clock. The clock is set manually or it is synchronized with NTP server and set for both units.
Time sourceTime synchronization source setup. Manual setup or NTP protocol use. For easier diagnostics of link operation, it is recommended to use the NTP time synchronization.
Adjust timeManual time setup. Use the dialog box to manually set the current date and time. You can copy time from browser (local PC).
     
NTP source IPIP address of the time synchronization server.
NTP periodTime synchronization interval.
Time zoneTime zone
[Note]Note

When the time zone is changed, the original values set in the RAy unit are kept. The actual change takes place after OS restart in order to prevent unexpected states related with local time change.

5.4.2. Radio

Setup of general parameters of the radio link.

Menu Link settings / Radio

Fig. 5.8: Menu Link settings / Radio


Band indexRadio unit type: L(ower) or U(pper) part of the frequency band.
TX polarizationHorizontal or vertical polarization based on the physical installation. Indicates the polarization of the received signal. Local and Peer are indicated separately. The proper position of the cable is sideways down.
Notice for RAy3-17 and RAy3-24 links: One side of the link must be installed in vertical polarization and the other in horizontal polarization.
Asymmetric bandwidthEnable asymmetric channel bandwidth.
TX bandwidth [MHz]One of the standard channel widths can be selected. This parameter must be set identically in local and remote (local TX bandwidth = peer RX bandwidth and local RX bandwidth = peer TX bandwidth). When units are connected, this is ensured automatically. If asymmetry is not allowed, then TX bandwidth = RX bandwidth on both units.
RX bandwidth [MHz]
Frequency inputAllows to choose if TX and RX channel frequencies are selected from the list of predefined channels or if manual input of frequencies would be possible (if supported).
TX channel [GHz]TX and RX channels are selected from a list of channels. The basic configuration has the TX and RX options interconnected. In this case the basic duplex spacing between channels is preserved and by selecting one channel, the other three are defined as well. For units operating in free bands, it is possible to disconnect the TX-RX lock and select TX and RX channels individually. Corresponding channels at peer unit are set automatically.
NOTE: Non-standard duplex setting leads to non-effective use of the spectrum.
RX channel [GHz]
Duplex spacing [MHz]Information about duplex spacing of TX and RX channel.
ACM max TX modulation

Setting of minimum and maximum modulation level for ACM on TX channel (can be set differently for local and peer unit). ACM is always enabled on RAy3 and would operate within those boundaries. You can select in range from QPSK_S (highest sensitivity for difficult conditions) up to 4096QAM (highest speed for good conditions).
NOTE: On some channel widths the highest available modulation to select may be lower than 4096QAM.

ACM min TX modulation
ATPCEnable automatic control of RF power.
Once enabled, the TX power is regulated towards lower level while maintaining signal level high enough not to affect current degree of modulation.
ATPC RSS threshold [dBm]The ATPC algorithm controls the output power according to RSS of the peer unit. The lowest allowed RSS (the threshold) is approx. 10 dBm above declared sensitivity for BER 10-6. If necessary, it is possible to use this parameter to move the threshold slightly up or down.
TX power [dBm]RF output power. With ATPC enabled this parameter defines maximum RF power level.
Antenna gain [dBi]Gain of used antenna. It is used to calculate approximate EIRP.
Valid only for RAy3-17 and RAy3-24 links.
EIRP ?= limit [dBm]Approximate calculation of EIRP. Number on the right shows the allowed EIRP limit. Sign between numbers gives information on compliance / noncompliance with allowed EIRP limits. If the EIRP limit field background is RED, the value shown may be used but will exceed the EIRP limit.
This field value will only be shown for certain RAy3-17 and RAy3-24 links and based on the Frequency tables used.

The principle behind ATPC is to maintain the lowest transmitting power without affecting the throughput of the link. The output is primarily controlled by RSS on the opposite side. ATPC is also used to maintain MSE thus protecting the selected modulation level.
The ATPC Control loop is evaluated once per second.

The principle behind ACM is to maintain the connection between the two units even when degraded propagation conditions are experienced which make it impossible to maintain the selected modulation level. ACM regulates TX modulation across all ranges from ACM min TX modulation up to ACM max TX modulation (as configured by the user) according to the limits in table ACM switching according to MSE state.
ACM control loop is evaluated with each frame, i.e. roughly after tens of microseconds.

In normal operating conditions, ATPC is applied first (even if it is the slower control loop). When deterioration in propagation conditions gradually increases the attenuation on the route, it is compensated by increasing RF power. ACM control will only be applied in conditions when ATPC reaches its ceiling.

5.4.3. Service access

Services

Access routes for link configuration.

Menu Link settings / Service access / Services

Fig. 5.9: Menu Link settings / Service access / Services


IPv4 addressService IP address, by default 192.168.169.169 for L unit and 192.168.169.170 for U unit. Management address of the Peer station has to be set up as well.
NetmaskMask for service access, 24 by default.
GatewayDefault gateway for service access; empty by default.
Management VLAN, 1st tag, 2nd tagEnables management access via VLAN. Management VLAN can be single-tagged or dual-tagged. Line for 2nd tag gets active only after 1st tag is activated. Blocks access for HTTPS, ssh and telnet configuration via untagged packets (without VLAN) making only VLAN access possible. VLAN management is off by default.
WARNING:
By enabling VLAN management, ALL accesses are blocked for configuration using normal (untagged) LAN! During tests, you may enable VLAN management on one unit only. Then it is possible to access the link via LAN and VLAN either directly or via radio link.
     VIDVLAN management id, by default 1. This field must have a value entered even when VLAN management is not active.
     ProtocolProtocol 802.1q or 802.1ad
Web serverAllows access via web server (for HTTP and HTTPS protocol).
WARNING: after disabling access via web server, you will not be able to access the unit using a web browser!
CLI (telnet)Enables access via telnet protocol. Provides access to CLI (Command Line Interface) for simple telnet clients. Disabled by default.
CLI (SSH)Enables access via SSH protocol. Provides secure access to CLI. If preventing unauthorized access to the unit is the number one priority, leave only this server on.
SNMPEnabling SNMP server. Off by default.
SNMP community stringSNMP community string. Can contain both lower and uppercase letters, numbers, four characters . : _ – and can be up to 256 characters long.
SNMP trap IPAddress for sending SNMP traps. It is possible to record up to 3 addresses separated by commas.
LED indicatorsEnable LED status indicators on the body of the unit. You can turn off LED indication with this option.
LLDP (Service IP info)
Data transmitted through the LLDP protocol can be accessed in two ways:
 OnTransmissions every 60 seconds
 SingleTransmitted once only when unit is rebooted
If you forget the Service IP address, it can be found by reading data broadcast through LLDP protocol. Data contains the following information:
 Management addressIP address
 System DescriptionSerial number
 Chassis SubtypeType (e.g. RAY3-17-L)
 IEEE 802.1 – Port and Protocol VLAN ID
  Port and Protocol VLAN Identifier: (e.g. 300 (0x012C))
but only if Management VLAN is enabled
The message can be recorded and converted into a readable form using a LLDP client. A suitable tool for this purpose is Wireshark IP traffic analyzing tool, with free licenses available for both Windows and Linux. To locate the message easily, use the Capture filter “ether proto 0x88cc” in Wireshark.
Management address of the Peer station has to be set up as well.

USB accessories

The USB connector is used for management access (not for user data) to the local unit using Ethernet or WiFi adapter. Only RACOM recommended adapters are supported.

Default WiFi IP address of the unit is 172.17.17.17 with DHCP enabled by default allocating IP address automatically to connected device.

Menu Link settings / Service access / USB accessories

Fig. 5.10: Menu Link settings / Service access / USB accessories


USB infoStatus information about device connected via the USB:
n/a – info not available (HW not known to RAy3 FW = probably not RACOM supplied accessory), or
No device – no device plugged in the USB port, or
List of basic USB module credentials:
  • Vendor ID: Product ID

  • Manufacturer

  • Product

  • WiFi/Eth: up/down … only for network device

  • MAC … only for network device

IPv4 addressUnit service management address when connecting via USB port.
NetmaskNetwork mask when connecting via USB port.
DHCP start
DHCP end
DHCP range for dynamic address allocation of the management client connected via USB port.
Ethernet adapter enableEnables operation of USB/Eth adapter.
Ethernet adapter DHCPEnables DHCP on WiFi adapter if present (for automatic setting of client(s) IP address).
WiFi adapter enable
on Air link loss
WiFi is activated only during Air-Link loss – means WiFi starts to work and transmit SSID. WiFi is activated 60 seconds after Air-Link loss and deactivated 600 seconds after the Air-Link is restored. The WiFi passphrase should be set by admin before using this option (if not WiFi management alarm is activated).
WiFi adapter Force
enable
WiFi is forced to be permanently active (and to transmit SSID) and WiFi management alarm is activated. WiFi passphrase should be set by admin before using this option.
This parameter has a higher priority than “WiFi adapter enable on Air link loss”, so if it is set ON then WiFi activity does not depend on Air-Link status.
WiFi adapter DHCPEnables DHCP on WiFi adapter if present (for automatic setting of client(s) IP address).
WiFi SSIDName of service WiFi visible by clients (can be max 32 characters long).
WiFi encryptionService WiFi encryption is WPA2 and can not be changed. Factory default is “none” due to missing passphrase. WPA2 is applied automatically once any passphrase is entered.
WiFi passphraseService WiFi passphrase has to be 8-64 characters long. The WiFi passphrase should be set by admin before any use of WiFi. Until passphrase is set, WiFi management alarm is activated.
WiFi modeService WiFi mode can be IEEE 802.11n or IEEE 802.11g
WiFi channelWiFi channel can be set 1-11 depending on WiFi mode setting (see parameter above):
IEEE 802.11n – channels 1-7
IEEE 802.11g – channels 1-11
The WiFi adapter does not search for conflicts in the air. If problems occur, changing the channel is the easiest way to resolve the issue.

Users

List and setup of users. Example menu of the cli_super level user.

Menu Link settings / Service access / Users

Fig. 5.11: Menu Link settings / Service access / Users


Within the default Factory Settings one user is defined in the system. This user has username admin and password admin and is assigned the highest level of permissions cli_super. This user then assigns other users to the system along with their level of permissions.

Service access has three levels of permissions. Numbers of users that can be defined in the system:

    PermissionsNo of users
cli_guest10
cli_admin10
cli_super2
    Permissions defined in the systemcli_guestcli_admincli_super
Create new userNoNoYes
Change own passwordYesYesYes
Delete user *NoNoYes
Copy (Mirror) permissions local to peerNoNoYes
Configure and modify link settingsNoYesYes

   * The system prevents the user from deleting both cli_super accounts.

The logged-on user is shown in the top right of the screen. There can be different users on either end of the link.

[Important]Important

It is strongly recommended that the default password admin is changed. Similarly, all other users should change their password. Using the CLI, it is appropriate to supplement the SSH key.

Local, PeerList of users on Local and Peer stations.
UsernameThis name is entered at Login to log into the link management.
Group
User group to which the user belongs.
 cli_guestRead Only
 cli_adminConfigure and modify link settings
 cli_superConfigure and modify user accounts and link settings
PasswordInformation about whether user has a password
SSH keyInformation about whether user has at least one ssh key defined.

 

[Note]Note

More users concurrently

If two or more users work concurrently on the unit any change of configuration settings should be applied by all users. This applies to the menu Link settings which works with both, Local and Peer parameters. Notification to other users:

If one user sends the Apply command, other users will receive a message: “Configuration changed, please go to Link settings and click Refresh”. Other users can only use the Apply command after refreshing Link Settings.

Edit user

Clicking “Edit” next to a username opens a screen with configuration of the given account.

Menu Link settings / Service access / Users / edit

Fig. 5.12: Menu Link settings / Service access / Users / edit


 UsernameUser name
 GroupThe group to which this user will belong.
 PasswordPassword can be set or deleted.
  Delete – User will not have a password. The user will only be able to log in with a ssh key. In order to delete the password, you must first upload the ssh key.
  Set – Password settings.
 New passwordNew password.
 Confirm passwordRepeat password.
 SSH keyWorking with ssh key.
  Delete – Clear all ssh keys from user account.
  Set/replace – Add a new key. If there already was any key(s), it will be overwritten.
  Add – Add a new key. You can enter multiple ssh keys in this way.
 Key fileInsert key file.
 

Save the menu content by clicking on the button Apply.

Backup user
 The user settings can be backed up, see Tools / Maintenance / Backup.
Delete user
 Users at level cli_super have a Delete button next to each user. Delete a user using this button without being asked to confirm deletion. Users at level cli_super cannot both be deleted.
Add user
 The button is located on the bottom bar.
 For level cli_super users, the “Add user” button is active. Use it to create a new user within any group.
 UsernameName of new user.
 GroupThe group to which this user is assigned.
 New passwordPassword for this user.
 Confirm passwordRepeat password.
 SSH keyIf you want the user to have access using ssh protocol and identity verification using ssh key, enter the ssh key here.
 Create a new user account by clicking on the button Apply.
Mirror users
 The button is located on the bottom bar.
 For level cli_super users, the “Mirror users” button is active. This function will copy all user accounts from Local unit to Peer unit. All existing user accounts on the Peer unit are deleted.

5.4.4. Alarms

Alarms Config

Menu Link settings / Alarms / Config

Fig. 5.13: Menu Link settings / Alarms / Config


The diagnostics system of the link monitors the operation of both units.

It generates various event outputs – system warnings and alarms. The event is always written to the system log and indicated in the status bar and Alarms/Status screen. Some events have adjustable thresholds. Events with no adjustable thresholds may or may not be Enabled. If they are not Enabled, the system event is not activated even if the system status is changed.

If the event goes above or below the set parameter limits or a link goes down or up, you can choose to send an SNMP trap. All SNMP traps are OFF in defaults.

alarmdefault  description
Inside temper. [°C] >80  Temperature inside the unit (on the modem board). Active if temperature exceeds the threshold.
Voltage min [V] <40  Lower threshold of supply voltage. Active if voltage drops below min voltage threshold.
The same SNMP trap (same OID) applies for both Voltage min and max.
Voltage max [V] >60  Upper threshold of supply voltage. Active if voltage rises above max voltage threshold.
The same SNMP trap (same OID) applies for both Voltage min and max.
RSS [dBm] <−80  Received Signal Strength. Active if RSS drops below RSS threshold.
MSE [dB] >0  Mean Square Error (the inverse to often used SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio). Active if MSE rises above MSE threshold.
BER [-] >10e−6  Bit Error Rate is registered at the receiving end of the link- instantaneous value. Active if BER exceeds the threshold set in this parameter.
Net bitrate [Mbps]    0  The system warning is generated when the current transfer capacity of radio channel is lower than the threshold set in this parameter.
Air link downon  Interruption of radio link. Active if radio link is interrupted and units can not communicate by Air.
Eth1/Eth2 link downoff  Corresponding user Eth link (Eth1/Eth2) on station interrupted.
NOTE: The “EthX link” system alarm can only be activated if this alarm is Enabled. When the alarm is not Enabled, the “EthX link” alarm on Status screen is always “Ok” regardless of the current status of the Ethernet link.
WiFi Managementon  Warning is generated when WiFi passphrase is not set or WiFi adapter (and Host Access Point) is permanently enabled (WiFi Force Enable is ON). Parameter can not be changed in web interface (only through CLI).

Alarms Status

Menu Link settings / Alarms / Status

Fig. 5.14: Menu Link settings / Alarms / Status


Alarm severity

Fig. 5.15: Alarm severity


Overview of alarms

All system alarms are listed on this screen. Inactive alarms are colored white with an “OK” text label. Active alarms are colored according to the severity of the alarm with a text message describing the measured value status.

For a detailed description of each Alarm click on the Alarm name.

Alarms Acknowledge

Menu Link settings / Alarms / Acknowledge

Fig. 5.16: Menu Link settings / Alarms / Acknowledge


Alarm acknowledgement allows the operator to confirm the system is set in alarm state. Only an active alarm can be acknowledged. Multiple selections of active alarms (to acknowledge groups of alarms) can be performed using Shift or Ctrl keys.

NameAlarm identification – The following alarms can appear:
Inside temperature, Voltage min, Voltage max, RSS, MSE, BER, Net bitrate, Air link, Eth1 link, Eth2 link, RF power, WiFi management
StateThere are three possible alarm states:
OK … No alarm (alarm is inactive) or alarm disabled.
Ack … Alarm is active and acknowledged.
Alarm … Alarm is active and is not acknowledged.
FromTime stamp when the alarm occurred.
ToTime stamp when the alarm expired (returned to normal conditions).
AckTime stamp when the alarm was acknowledged.
Time stamp format: yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss
UserName (login) of the user who acknowledged the alarm.
CommentThe comment field can be used to add user defined comments when an ‘alarm acknowledge’ is performed. Use this comment field to describe important details of the alarm status. The comment can be up to 50 characters long. Special characters are not allowed.
The alarm can be acknowledged multiple times with different comments. Every acknowledgement is written to the internal memory and is visible in the alarm log.

5.5. Switch settings

5.5.1. Status

Port status

The unit internal Ethernet switch port status

Menu Switch settings / Status / Port status

Fig. 5.17: Menu Switch settings / Status / Port status


Port name
Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).
 Eth1
Eth2
CPU
Air
port1
port10
port0
port9
The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.
The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.
The internal port to management CPU.
The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.
Link status
Ethernet link status can be
 downno link signal detected
 uplink signal detected
Speed
/ duplex
Ethernet link Speed and duplex.
 Speed:10/100/1000 Mbps.
 Duplex:full/half
SFP info
Information about the (optionally) inserted SFP module. The three different types of SFP modules can be used:
 Fibredual mode with LC connector
 Fibresingle mode with LC connector
 Copperwith RJ45 connector
There can be one of the following scenarios:
 scenariomessage
 SFP OKThe SFP vendor string read out of SFP module. The vendor, model, connector (RJ45/LC) and wavelength values are shown. Separate window with more detailed information can be opened by clicking the “more…” link.
 No SFPNo SFP module
 read errorn/a
 no SFP
option
MDIXStatus of the internal crossover of Ethernet cables. (MDIX = internally crossed pairs, MDI = direct connection, N/A means an unknown state).
Tx state
Port transmitting status can be
 transmittingNormal port operation.
 pausedPort transmitter is paused due to Pause frames reception.
 n/aInfo not available.
Flow control
Indication of Flow control status of the port. See Flow control and Pause limit parameters to configure Flow control settings.
QoS
Quality of Service status can be one of the following values:
 disabledQoS functions are disabled.
 802.1pQoS according to 802.1p is enabled.
 DSCPQoS according to DSCP is enabled.
 802.1p,DSCPQoS according to 802.1p and DSCP is enabled. The 802.1 prefer tag is selected.
 DSCP,802.1pQoS according to 802.1p and DSCP is enabled. The DSCP prefer tag is selected.
  

RMON counters

The unit internal Ethernet switch RMON counters

Menu Switch settings / Status / RMON counters

Fig. 5.18: Menu Switch settings / Status / RMON counters


The Remote Network MONitoring (RMON) MIB was developed by the IETF to support monitoring and protocol analysis of LANs.

Port name
Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).
 Eth1
Eth2
CPU
Air
port1
port10
port0
port9
The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.
The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.
The internal port to management CPU.
The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

The Internal switch port RMON counters

These counters provide a set of Ethernet statistics for frames received on ingress and transmitted on egress.

Ingress statistics counters
 In good octetsThe sum of lengths of all good Ethernet frames received, that is frames that are not bad frames.
 In bad octetsThe sum of lengths of all bad Ethernet frames received.
 In unicastsThe number of good frames received that have a Unicast destination MAC address.
 In multicastsThe number of good frames received that have a Multicast destination MAC address.
NOTE: This does not include frames counted in “In broadcasts” nor does it include frames counted in “In pause”.
 In broadcastsThe number of good frames received that have a Broadcast destination MAC address.
 In pauseThe number of good frames received that have a Pause destination MAC address.
 In undersizeTotal frames received with a length of less than 64 octets but with a valid FCS.
 In oversizeTotal frames received with a length of more than MaxSize octets but with a valid FCS.
 In FCS errorsTotal frames received with a CRC error not counted in “In fragments”, “In jabber” or “In MAC RX” errors.
 In fragmentsTotal frames received with a length of less than 64 octets and an invalid FCS.
 In jabberTotal frames received with a length of more than MaxSize octets but with an invalid FCS.
 In MAC RX
errors
Total frames received with an RxErr signal from the PHY.
 In discardsTotal number of frames that normally would have been forwarded, but could not be due to a lack of buffer space.
 In filteredTotal number of good frames that were filtered due to ingress switch policy rules.
Egress statistics counters
 Out octetsThe sum of lengths of all Ethernet frames sent from this MAC.
 Out FCS errorsThe number of frames transmitted with an invalid FCS. Whenever a frame is modified during transmission (e.g., to add or remove a tag) the frame’s original FCS is inspected before a new FCS is added to a modified frame. If the original FCS is invalid, the new FCS is made invalid too and this counter is incremented.
 Out unicastsThe number of frames sent that have a Unicast destination MAC address.
 Out multicastsThe number of good frames sent that have a Multicast destination MAC address.
NOTE: This does not include frames counted in “Out broadcasts” nor does it include frames counted in “Out pause”.
 Out broadcastsThe number of good frames sent that have a Broadcast destination MAC address.
 Out pauseThe number of Flow Control frames sent.
 Out deferredThe total number of successfully transmitted frames that experienced no collisions but are delayed because the medium was busy during the first attempt. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only.
 Out collisionsThe number of collision events seen by the MAC not including those counted in “Out Single”, Multiple, Excessive, or Late. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only. See Auto negotiation.
 Out singleThe total number of successfully transmitted frames that experienced exactly one collision. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only.
 Out multipleThe total number of successfully transmitted frames that experienced more than one collision. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only.
 Out excessiveThe number frames dropped in the transmit MAC because the frame experienced 16 consecutive collisions. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only.
 Out lateThe number of times a collision is detected later than 512 bits-times into the transmission of a frame. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only.
 Out filteredTotal number of good frames that were filtered due to egress switch policy rules.
Frame size histogram counters
 Size 64 octetsTotal frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of exactly 64 octets, including those with errors.
 Size   65-127 octetsTotal frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 65 and 127 octets inclusive, including those with errors.
 Size 128-255 octetsTotal frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 128 and 255 octets inclusive, including those with errors.
 Size 256-511 octetsTotal frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 256 and 511 octets inclusive, including those with errors.
 Size 512-1023 octetsTotal frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 512 and 1023 octets inclusive, including those with errors.
 Size 1024-max octetsTotal frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 1024 and MaxSize (see MTU parameter) octets inclusive, including those with errors.
Histogram counters mode
Frame size histogram counters can count received and/or transmitted octets. The mode of histogram counters is indicated here.
Measure time
This is the time interval, the diff column is valid for. The “diff” column shows the difference of the actual value of the counters at the moment of pressing the Difference button and the value of the counters at the moment of pressing the Refresh button.
Refresh
Difference
In another way: The Difference counter reference value can be reset by pressing the Refresh button. The time point at which the Difference counter sample is triggered and the “diff” value is calculated is defined by pressing the Difference button.
The “total” column always shows the actual values. It is refreshed either by pressing the Refresh and also the Difference button.

5.5.2. Interface

Port

Configuration of port settings

Menu Switch settings / Interface / Port

Fig. 5.19: Menu Switch settings / Interface / Port


Port name
Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).
 Eth1
Eth2
CPU
Air
port1
port10
port0
port9
The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.
The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.
The internal port to management CPU.
The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.
Label
Name of each port on the switch (up to 15 characters).
Port enable
Enables functionality of individual port on the switch. Each port can be enabled or disabled.
 WARNING: When the port is disabled, no communication is possible through this port.
Auto negotiation
Enables Auto-Negotiation functionality of individual port. Negotiation is an Ethernet procedure by which two connected devices choose common transmission parameters, such as speed, duplex mode and flow control. In this process, the connected devices first share their capabilities regarding these parameters and then choose the highest performance transmission mode they both support.
The device supports three types of Auto-Negotiation:
  • 10/100/1000BASE-T Copper Auto-Negotiation. (IEEE 802.3 Clauses 28 and 40)

  • 1000BASE-X Fiber Auto-Negotiation (IEEE 802.3 Clause 37)

  • SGMII Auto-Negotiation (Cisco specification)

Auto-Negotiation provides a mechanism for transferring information from the local unit to the link partner to establish speed, duplex and Master/Slave preference during a link session.
Auto-Negotiation is initiated upon any of the following conditions:
  • Power up reset

  • Hardware reset

  • Software reset

  • Restart Auto-Negotiation

  • Transition from power down to power up

  • The link goes down

The 10/100/1000BASE-T Auto-Negotiation is based on Clause 28 and 40 of the IEEE 802.3 specification. It is used to negotiate speed, duplex and flow control over CAT5 (or higher) UTP cable. Once Auto-Negotiation is initiated, the device determines whether or not the remote device has Auto-Negotiation capability. If so, the device and the remote device negotiate the speed and duplex with which to operate.
If the remote device does not have Auto-Negotiation capability, the device uses the parallel detect function to determine the speed of the remote device for 100BASE-TX and 10BASE-T modes. If a link is established based on the parallel detect function, it is then required to establish the link at half-duplex mode only. Refer to IEEE 802.3 clauses 28 and 40 for a full description of Auto-Negotiation.
1000BASE-X Auto-Negotiation is defined in Clause 37 of the IEEE 802.3 specification. It is used to auto-negotiate duplex and flow control over fibre cable.
If one side of the link enables 1000BASE-X Auto-Negotiation and the link partner does not, the link cannot linkup. The device implements an Auto-Negotiation bypass mode.
SGMII Auto-Negotiation. SGMII is a de-facto standard designed by Cisco. SGMII uses 1000BASE-X coding to send data as well as Auto-Negotiation information. However, the contents of the SGMII Auto-Negotiation are different than the 1000BASE-X Auto-Negotiation.
 WARNING: If one device provides Auto-negotiation and the other works with a manual link parameters setting (i.e. without Auto-negotiation) the link operates in half-duplex mode. If the manual setting is set to full-duplex, the “Out collisions” may occur.
Speed / duplex
Ethernet link speed and duplex mode can be selected. Both parameters can be either auto negotiated or set manually. When the Auto negotiation parameter is disabled, only manual setting of the speed and duplex is possible. In most cases it is better to enable the auto negotiation and use “auto / auto” speed and duplex settings.
There are two possibilities to force the link to operate in specific speed and duplex:
 Auto negotiation enabled. Select the desired Speed / duplex. The auto negotiation process advertises only this specified link mode. The link partner is asked to use it.
 Auto negotiation disabled. Select the desired Speed / duplex. The link is set to this specified link mode. The link partner has to be set manually to the same mode.
Frame mode
Ethernet Frame mode control defines the expected Ingress and the generated Egress tagging frame format for this port as follows:
 normal

Normal Network mode uses industry standard IEEE 802.ac Tagged or Untagged frames. Tagged frames use an Ether Type of 0x8100. Ports that are expected to be connected to standard Ethernet devices should use this mode.

 DSA

Inactive options are not required.

 provider

Provider mode uses user definable Ether Types per port (see Ether type parameter) to define that a frame is Provider Tagged. Ports that are connected to standard Provider network devices, or devices that use Tagged frames with an Ether Type other than 0x8100 should use this mode.

Frames that ingress this port with an Ether Type that matches the port’s “Ether Type” parameter will be considered tagged, will have the tag’s VID and PRI bits assigned to the frame (i.e. they will be used for switching and mapping), and will have the Provider Tag removed from the frame. If subsequent Provider Tags are found following the 1st Provider Tag, they too will be removed from the frame with their VID and PRI bits being ignored. Modified frames will be padded if required.

Frames that ingress this port with an Ether Type that does not match the “Ether Type” parameter will be considered untagged. The ingressing frames are modified so they are ready to egress out Customer ports (Normal Network Frame Mode ports) unmodified.

Frames that egress this port will always have a tag added (even if they were already tagged). The added tag will contain this port’s “Ether Type” as its Ether Type. The PRI bits will be the Frame Priority assigned to the frame during ingress. The VID bits will be the source port’s Default VID bits (if the source port was in Normal Network mode), or the VID assigned to the frame during ingress (if the source port was in Provider mode).

 

ether type DSA

Valid only for the “p5 CPU” port.

Ether Type DSA mode uses standard Marvell DSA Tagged frame information following a user definable Ether Type (see Ether type parameter). This mode allows the mixture of Normal Network frames with DSA Tagged frames and is useful on ports that connect to a CPU.

Frames that ingress this port with an Ether Type that matches the port’s “Ether Type” will be considered DSA Tagged and processed accordingly. The frame’s Ether Type and DSA pad bytes will be removed so the resulting frame will be ready to egress out Marvell DSA Tag Mode ports unmodified. Frames that ingress this port with a different Ether Type will be considered Normal Network Frames and processed accordingly.

Marvell DSA Tag control frames that egress this port will always get the port’s “Ether Type” inserted followed by two pad bytes of 0x00 before the DSA Tag. Marvell DSA Tag Forward frames that egress this port can egress just like the control frames (with the added Ether Type and pad) or they can egress as if the port was configured in Normal Network mode. This selection is controlled by the port’s Egress Mode bits above.

Ether type

Ethernet frame type (often called EtherType) is used to indicate which protocol is encapsulated in the payload of an Ethernet Frame. This parameter is important when one protocol is encapsulated to another protocol.

Examples:
 Eth. typeStandardComment
 0x8100IEEE 802.1qDouble-tagged, Q-in-Q or C-tag stacking on C-tag. C-tag in IEEE 802.1ad frames.
 0x88a8IEEE 802.1ad S-Tag
 0x88e7IEEE 802.1ahS-Tag (backbone S-Tag)
 0x9100It is used very often. For example an old non-standard 802.1QinQ protocol uses this value.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EtherType for further details.
MTU [B]Defines maximum transmission unit (MTU) frame size allowed to be received or transmitted from or to a given physical port. This implies that a Jumbo frame may be allowed to be received from a given input port but may or may not be allowed to be transmitted out of a port or ports.

The possible values are 1522, 2048 and 10240 Bytes.

NOTE: The definition of frame size is counting the frame bytes from MAC_DA through Layer2 CRC of the frame.

TX / RX flow control
Defines method of Flow control for each port separately for data transmission (TX) and data receive (RX).
It is the mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on an Ethernet network. Enabling flow control allows use of buffers of connected active network elements for leveling uneven flow of user data. For correct operation it is necessary to also enable Flow control on the connected device. Flow control is handled by sending Pause frames to the connected device. Possible values:
 offFlow control is disabled.
 onFlow control is enabled (forced to be active).
 autoSending pause packets is advertised and depends on result on the auto-negotiation process. Auto-Negotiation has to be supported and enabled on the port to take effect.
Pause limit in [frame]

Value limits the number of continuous Pause refresh frames that can be received on this port (if full-duplex) or the number of 16 consecutive collisions (if half-duplex). When a port has flow control enabled, this parameter can be used to limit how long this port can be Paused or Back Pressured off to prevent a port stall through jamming.

The Flow Control on the port is (temporarily) disabled when the Pause refresh frames count exceeds the value of this parameter.

Setting this parameter to 0 will allow continuous jamming to be received on this port.

Pause limit out [frame]

Value limits the number of continuous Pause refresh frames that can be transmitted from this port – assuming each Pause refresh is for the maximum pause time of 65536 slot times. When full-duplex Flow Control is enabled on this port, this parameter is used to limit the number of Pause refresh frames that can be generated from this port to keep this port’s link partner from sending any data.

Clearing this parameter to 0 will allow continuous Pause frame refreshes to egress this port as long as this port remains congested.

Setting this parameter to 1 will allow 1 Pause frame to egress from this port for each congestion situation.

Setting this parameter to 2 will allow up to 2 Pause frames to egress from this port for each congestion situation, etc.

Ignore checksumEnables ignoring Frame checksum (FCS) – or in other words – Force good FCS in the frame. When this parameter is not set (default behaviour), frames entering this port must have a good CRC or else they are discarded. When this parameter is set, the last four bytes of frames received on this port are overwritten with a good CRC and the frames are accepted by the switch (assuming that the frame’s length is good and it has a destination).

5.5.3. Advanced

RSTP setup

Configuring RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol by IEEE 802.1w). RSTP provides significantly faster recovery in response to network changes or failures, introducing new convergence behaviors and bridge port roles to do this. RSTP was designed to be backwards-compatible with standard STP. For more information about RSTP, STP, related Path cost, etc. see
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanning_Tree_Protocol.

Menu Switch settings / Advanced / RSTP setup

Fig. 5.20: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / RSTP setup


RSTP enable
Enables RSTP protocol. When RSTP is enabled, the bridge is created and RSTP service is initiated. Should the unit be connected via two Ethernet cables (using Eth1 and Eth2 ports), the active participation of the RSTP protocol may be necessary. If the parameter is not enabled, the unit transfers the BPDU frames transparently.

NOTE: To enable proper RSTP functionality, these switch parameters has to be set:

  • Switch settings / Interface / Port advanced / Frame mode / p5 CPU: “ether type DSA”

  • Switch settings / Interface / Port advanced / Ether type / p5 CPU: “0xDADA”

  • Switch settings / Advanced / ATU settings / Reserved multicast to CPU: “Enable”

Bridge priority
The priority value is a number between 0 and 61440 in incremental steps of 4096, with a default value of 32768. Lower priority values are ‘better’. The bridge with the lowest priority value will be elected ‘root bridge’.
Hello time [s]
The hello time is the time between each Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) that is sent on a port. Hello time is equal to 2 seconds by default.
Max age [s]
The max age timer controls the maximum length of time that passes before a bridge port saves its configuration BPDU information. This time is set to 20 sec by default.
Forward delay [s]
The forward delay is the time that is spent in the listening and learning state. This time is equal to 15 sec by default.
Algorithm
This parameter sets the bridge’s spanning tree algorithm to operate in normal (RSTP) or force it to operate in slow (STP) mode. In normal mode, RSTP reverts back to STP on ports where it sees other hosts operating in STP mode.
Port name
Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).
 Eth1
Eth2
CPU
Air
port1
port10
port0
port9
The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.
The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.
The internal port to management CPU.
The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.
Port priorityThe ports’ priority value is a number between 0 and 240 in increments of 16, with a default value of 128.
Path cost

The Path cost indicates “suitability of the link for the data transmission” and it is used in networks with redundant connections to choose the best route for packets.

The Path cost can be set automatically or manually. Entering the value of zero sets this parameter automatically. The automatic setup is based on link speed. It is calculated as 20 Tbits/sec divided by a link capacity.

For manual settings, lower value increase probability the link is chosen as a primary one for the data transmission.

EdgeSelecting the checkbox sets the port as an “edge” port. If a port is an edge port it is assumed to be a leaf link in the graph, not connected to any other bridges. Receiving any STP BPDU’s on a port configured as an edge port temporarily overrides edge port behaviour for the port.
MAC address
The ports’ default MAC addresses are the same as the MAC address of the unit. Value can be overwritten by a user.

5.6. Tools

5.6.1. Maintenance

Backup

Menu Tools / Maintenance / Backup

Fig. 5.21: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Backup


Settings
(Local & Peer)
Saving and restoring whole link (both units) configuration. User accounts are not affected by those functions.
 Backup
to external file
Configuration is saved to backup file which is downloaded to management PC. The backup file name contains the date, time and RAy serial number as follows:
yyyyMMddhhmm_SN_cnf_backup.tgz.
It can be either a full configuration or a difference to the default configuration.
 Upload fileUpload configuration from a backup file into buffer. The current unit configuration is not affected. The uploaded configuration can be displayed using “Show backup” button on particular configuration screens. The configuration of the entire unit can be restored (from this buffer) using “Restore” button below.
 Restore from fileAfter the configuration backup file has been loaded into the unit buffer (using Upload button above), the whole unit configuration can be restored using Restore button.
 
Settings –
Internal backup
(Local)
It is possible to make a temporary backup of the unit configuration. The backup is stored directly in the unit FLASH memory.
  NOTE: The internal backup is deleted if factory settings or firmware upgrade are performed.
 Internal backupMake a temporary backup of the unit configuration locally in the unit FLASH memory.
 Internal restoreRestore (from the unit FLASH memory) the temporary backup of the unit configuration.
 Internal restore
– HW button
The local temporary backup of the unit configuration can be restored using the hardware button. The HW button is located next to the USB connector within the slot marked “S”.
The rollback and reboot functions are suppressed while restoring from internal backup. All changes are applied immediately. Should the time zone be changed, the unit has to be restarted for changes to take effect.
Press the HW button for the required time interval of 5 seconds. The button being pressed is confirmed by the Status LED flashing green. After the 5 seconds guard time, the unit restores to customer settings.
Users (Local)
Saving and restoring user accounts.
 Backup
to external file
Backup local unit user accounts to an external file. The file is downloaded to management PC.
NOTE: The “super” user privileges are necessary to be able to perform this action.
 Upload file
& restore
 
Restoring user accounts from an external backup file.
 
Default settings
Applying default values to configuration parameters.
 Restore link
settings
(Local & Peer)
Whole set of parameters from the Link settings menu tree is affected.
   
   
 Restore switch
settings (Local)
Whole set of parameters from the Switch settings menu tree is affected.
Factory settings (Local)
 Restore
factory settings
Applying Factory settings to Local unit. The unit reboots itself after applying all changes.
 Restore
factory settings
– HW button
It is possible to bring the unit to Factory settings by holding the hardware button depressed during unit’s boot. The HW button is located next to the USB connector within the slot marked “S”.
Disconnect the power supply from the unit. Keep the HW button depressed while reconnecting the power. The LED marked SYS starts to flash red after a few seconds. Keep the HW button pressed another 5 seconds until the red status LED stops flashing. The unit’s boot up sequence continues and Factory settings are applied.
Should the HW button be released when the status LED is in the red flashing phase (but before the 5 s guard time), the unit stays in Service mode. Please, leave this mode by rebooting the unit.
  WARNING: Using the factory settings function will revert the unit to its original state. All configuration items, user accounts, measured values and system messages (logs) will be irreversibly deleted.
WARNING: This task takes a few minutes to complete. Do not interrupt the power supply during the operation.
Diagnostic package
(Local & Peer)
 
To facilitate communication with the technical support you can create an archive file with detailed information about the unit. If connection with Peer unit is active the diagnostic information from both units are saved.
 Create
& download file
Saving a file with information about the unit (Local and Peer).
  NOTE: This task takes a few minutes to complete.
Management
Information Base
 
 SNMP MIBSaving a file with SNMP MIB (Management Information Base) table. The downloaded file is identical to the SNMP MIB table file downloaded from RACOM web (section Downloads) for relevant FW version.

Feature keys

Menu Tools / Maintenance / Feature keys

Fig. 5.22: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Feature keys


The sub-set of RAy parameters is affected by use of Feature keys.

The feature keys limiting data transfer speed [Mbps] and/or few other parameters and functionality of the RAy unit are available. Speed of the transferred data is determined by a combination of the radio channel bandwidth (parameter Bandwidth [MHz]) and modulation order (parameter TX modulation). The Feature key limiting the data transfer speed enables only certain combinations of the channel bandwidth and modulation order to get the data transfer speed according to the Feature key. The data transfer speed is typically slightly higher than declared.

When installed, the Feature key is activated after the unit restart. The unit can be restarted using the Tools – Maintenance – Restart. Choose the Restart mode – warm.

Feature
Name of the function controlled by the Feature key.
Available feature keys:
 speed 
 Tx power 
 Sync Eth 
 AES encryption etc. 
Limit / Enable
The numeric value set by the key.
Remove
The specific Feature key can be deleted using the Delete button. The parameters controlled by this Feature key are reset to their default values after the unit restart. Only Local feature keys could be deleted. To be able to manipulate the Feature keys, it is necessary to access directly the management system of the relevant unit – use the IP address of the relevant unit.
NOTE: Before deleting the feature key it is recommended to configure the link such a way that it does not require this feature key.
Upload
Feature keys are installed into the unit from the binary files.
NOTE: Use the file as it is (do not unpack).
 Open file upload – Dialog for the Feature key binary file selection is open.
The Feature key is activated after the unit restart.

Firmware

Menu Tools / Maintenance / Firmware

Fig. 5.23: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Firmware


If a new firmware version is released for the given microwave link type, you can upload it to your RAy units.

          Info
Radio SW version
Information about the Software Defined Radio (SDR) version on the Local and Peer units.
Firmware
version
Information about the current firmware package version on the Local and Peer units.
 
          Firmware upgrade
Firmware upload
Open file upload – opens a dialog for uploading firmware package to the unit buffer. Only after firmware has been prepared in the buffer, can you perform the actual upgrade.
NOTE: Use the file as it is (do not unpack).
File name
Name of the uploaded firmware file.
File size [B]
Size of the uploaded firmware file (in bytes).
Version in buffer
Information about firmware version prepared in the buffer for installation into the unit (Local, Peer). This firmware must first be prepared in the Firmware upload section (see above).
Clean buffer
You can use the Clean buffer button to delete prepared firmware package in the buffer.
Force upgrade
Force mode blocks all safety and compatibility checks and may result in breaking your unit.
IMPORTANT: You should not use force mode until instructed to do so by the technical support.
Upgrade
Use the Upgrade button to perform the firmware installation.
[Warning]Warning

Installing the firmware takes several minutes (about 3 minutes). During this time, transmission of user data is interrupted. Do not interrupt the power supply during firmware installation!

Radio adaptation

Menu Tools / Maintenance / Radio adaptation

Fig. 5.24: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Radio adaptation


Band index
Band index displays radio channel assignment of local unit transmitter (Tx) for L (Lower) or U (Upper) part of the frequency band.
 Change buttonChange button changes the band index (L -> U and U-> L). If units are linked together both Local and Peer units are changed in the same time.
NOTE: Change button applies only for 17 GHz and 24 GHz links, where hardware of each RAy unit is universal for the entire frequency band.
NOTE: After restoring factory settings Band index is set to its pre-defined state L or U as typed on Product Label.
WARNING: When the radio type is changed, the “Link settings” menu parameters of each unit are reset to default values except login / password details.
Frequency tables
The microwave link contains one or more frequency tables (called rcinfo). These tables contain the following information:
 List of available bandwidths and modulations.
 Assignment of frequencies to the channels and the names of these channels. These channels are used to configure radio parameters of the link (see screen Link settings / Radio).
 Default values of radio parameters.
 A set of radio parameters, needed for the ATPC operation.
 ActiveName of the currently used frequency table in format <name:version>.
 NewSelect a new frequency table. Available tables are displayed in format <name:version>. Use the Change button to change the table.
[Warning]Warning

Using the wrong frequency table can lead to violation of the corresponding telecommunications regulations.

 

Restart

Menu Tools / Maintenance / Restart

Fig. 5.25: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Restart


Target
Chose the unit(s) to be restarted: Local or Peer or both.
Restart mode
Chose the type of the restart:
 
 WarmReboot only management system and web interface.
 ColdRestart the whole unit as if power was removed.
System restart
Pushing the “Restart” button performs the selected restart.

5.6.2. Live data

Bar indicators

Menu Tools / Live Data / Bar indicators

Fig. 5.26: Menu Tools / Live Data / Bar indicators


Graphical indication of RSS and MSE.

Refresh
One-time update of displayed values.
Start, Stop
Start button starts automatic update of displayed values with a period of 1 second. Stop button stops refreshing of both graphs.
Antenna alignment
Link “go to antenna alignment screen” activates Antenna Alignment Tool (black page explained below).

Antenna Alignment Tool

The Antenna Alignment Tool supports interactive antenna alignment. RSS and MSE are displayed for both local and peer unit. A selected value can be indicated in large font and acoustically. Values are refreshed 10x per second.

When performing antenna alignment, both ATPC and ACM functions should be disabled; their automatic behaviour interferes with the alignment process which is based on finding the maximum signal strength.

The tool is accessed via e.g. http://192.168.169.169/tk for standard Ethernet ports, and via http://172.17.17.17/tk for connections using USB/WiFi or USB/Eth. The Antenna Alignment Tool does not require user authentication.

RAy Tools

Fig. 5.27: RAy Tools


Red strip
(top of the page)
   +Increases the number of displayed parameters
   xDecreases the number of displayed parameters
   textLocal Station name (e.g. RAy3-17L)
Link
 3.5 MHz
Ok
Channel width
Link connected (green icon).
The Peer values (see below) are visible when the connection between Local and Peer unit has been established.
Local, Peer
 QPSK
ACM, ATPC
Current modulation of the Tx signal
Status of ACM + ATPC (red colour warns ACM or ATPC is enabled).
Go to unit
management
 Link to the full configuration interface of the microwave unit; user authentication is required.
-71.8
 Actual RSS [dBm] or MSE value. The selected value is chosen by clicking/tapping on the respective value below the main display.
Exclamation icon !
 An exclamation icon is displayed when either Local or Peer unit has ACM or ATPC enabled. ACM and ATPC mode should be disabled; they can affect signal strength.
Icon
of speaker
 Acoustic indication for local RSS value ON/OFF.
The TONE or BEEP signal is supplemented with voice output every 10 seconds, notifying signal strength.
TONE / BEEP
 Select the sound generated.
 The better the signal, the higher the frequency.
The acoustic indication is linked to the value on the main display.
If a WiFi connection is used to access Antenna Alignment, the ‘noise’ audio signal is used to notify low quality or low stability of the WiFi signal.
COARSE
/ FINE
 Choose the scale of acoustic indication
 COARSE
 
FINE
– for approximate alignment. Range of tones (or frequency of beeps) is equal to -100 to -30 dBm
– for a more precise alignment. Range of tones (or frequency of beeps) is equal to ±10 dBm from the value sampled at the moment when the FINE button was pressed)
RSS, MSE
 Values RSS and MSE for local and peer unit (4 values in total):
 First column
Second column
Best values recorded
Current values
 The value to be displayed on the main display is selected by a tapping/clicking on the respective value.
Reset peaks
 Best values history is cleared.
  

Frequency spectrum analyzer

Menu Tools / Live Data / Frequency spectrum analyzer

Fig. 5.28: Menu Tools / Live Data / Frequency spectrum analyzer


A very useful tool for identifying in-band interference and locating a free channel. It is not a full-blown spectrum analyzer as it scans the spectrum with 2MHz channel resolution. The accuracy of measured results is given by the accuracy of measuring RSS.

Enable
Opening analyzer functions.
Start
Interrupts communication on the link and starts scanning frequencies in the band.
Spectrum
measure time
Selection of measurement length in range:
single sweep … up to 15 min
Mute peer TX
The deactivation of Peer station transmission during measurement.

NOTE: single sweep takes about 2 seconds for the whole band scan. The link is automatically re-established after it is finished.

[Warning]Warning

Running spectrum measurement causes interruption of user data flow between stations!

Interruption of the scan before selected measure time can be achieved anytime by visiting any of the Link menu settings and select Refresh. This restores the configuration connection (message Peer: n/a).

5.6.3. History

The unit continuously stores information about the values of important variables. Stored values can be viewed using three methods – Thumbnails, Viewer and Data

Thumbnails

Preview all values for the last 24 hours. Click on a thumbnail to open the viewer with a chart.

Menu Tools / History / Thumbnails

Fig. 5.29: Menu Tools / History / Thumbnails


TemperatureInstantaneous value of temperature inside the unit. Measured on the modem board.
VoltageInstantaneous value of unit supply voltage.
RSSReceived signal strength.
Signal qualitySignal quality of the received signal. It is negative value of Mean Square Error (MSE, the inverse to often used SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio).
BERInstantaneous bit error rate on link.
Net bitrateInstantaneous transmission capacity.
Eth1, Eth2 in
throughput
Instantaneous speed (20s average) of incoming user data on the user Ethernet port.
Eth1, Eth2 out
throughput
Instantaneous speed (20s average) of outgoing user data on the user Ethernet port.
TX powerInstantaneous value of transmission power.

Viewer

Detailed graphical view of one or two selected values for the given interval. You can choose to view data from Local or Peer or both.

Menu Tools / History / Viewer

Fig. 5.30: Menu Tools / History / Viewer


The values are saved in the following resolutions and history lengths:
 Resolution 1 minute, length of history 7 days
 Resolution 15 minutes, length of history 30 days
 Resolution 1 day, length of history about 180 days
Interval
Selecting width of interval to be displayed. Based on the interval width, data is displayed in a suitable grid: Up to 3 hours at one minute. Up to 4 days at 15 minutes. For longer intervals at one day.
 IntervalResolutionHistory
 1 hour – 3 hours1 minute7 days
 6 hours – 4 days15 minutes30 days
 1 week – 6 months1 day180 days
More options:
 Previous      Move by one width of selected interval towards older values.
 Next             Move by one width of selected interval towards newer values.
 Last              Move to the newest values.
Primary Y axis
Selecting one of the observed values:
 Temperature, Voltage, RSS, Signal quality, BER, Net bitrate, Ethernet in throughput, Ethernet out throughput, TX power
Secondary
Y axis
Selecting a second value:
 None
 Temperature, Voltage, RSS, Signal quality, BER, Net bitrate, Ethernet in throughput, Ethernet out throughput, TX power
Alarm
Enables the display of alarms, if there were any.

Data

Numerical view of all values

Menu Tools / History / Data

Fig. 5.31: Menu Tools / History / Data


Quantities
Detailed graphical view of values for selected interval.
 Plotted – Shows only the values that are selected for the graph.
 Local, Peer, All – Shows all logged values. Filtering of values from local, remote or both.
Interval, Previous, Next, Last
See explanation of those in Viewer section above.

5.6.4. Logs

Shows internal unit logs. Individual tabs allow total or filtered view.

Menu Tools / Logs

Fig. 5.32: Menu Tools / Logs


When you first open the screen, it is necessary to start browsing logs by pressing the Refresh button.

Maximum length of displayed logs is 250 entries. If you need to display longer history, use CLI interface instead.

Overall
Displays the last 3 records from all types of logs.
Local alarms, Peer alarms
Alarms from Local or Peer unit.
Local events, Peer events
Events from Local or Peer unit.
Filter
Listings of all logs can be filtered. Filtering string is entered in to the upper left corner window and Filter button is pushed. For example, you want to know when the configuration of the unit was modified: On the Local events screen, enter Configuration and hit Enter.
Plain text or regular expressions can be used for filtering (JavaScript format).

5.6.5. Programs

Ping

The Ping tool allows sending ICMP pings to a selected address

Menu Tools / Programs / Ping

Fig. 5.33: Menu Tools / Programs / Ping


Destination
Destination address in dotted decimal notation. The default address 127.0.0.1 is the localhost address – i.e. the unit itself.
Size [B]
Length of sent data 7 to 1500 bytes, 8 bytes of the header will be added.
Count
Number of sent pings.

Start the test by clicking on Send. The period for sending pings is constant: 1000 ms. The result is displayed in the text window.

CLI

Web interface for executing non-interactive scripts and programs.

Menu Tools / Programs / CLI

Fig. 5.34: Menu Tools / Programs / CLI


Manage custom commands
Using “Open file upload”/”upload” the user can upload scripts to the unit. The uploaded file can be either a single shell script with extension .sh (e.g. my_script.sh) or package with multiple scripts with extension .tar.gz or .tgz created using tar.
“Delete all” removes all custom scripts from the unit.
Custom scripts are located in /home/shared/bin.
Custom commands
A custom script can be selected here and initial comments/help is shown.
CLI commands
A CLI command can be selected here. You can use cli_help for listing all CLI commands or <command> –help to obtain detailed help on a selected command.
Command
Command line for writing commands with parameters. You can use any non-interactive program/script according to your permissions. Command is executed by pushing the “Run” button.
Format of custom scripts
Custom scripts must be a shell script with preamble #!/bin/sh and extension sh.
Blocks of lines beginning with the comment sign (#) after preamble are considered to be help and are listed when the script is selected in the web interface.
Scripts should not be interactive as there is no possibility to send a response from the web interface. All script options should be implemented as parameters.
Syntax should be valid for interpret shell ash from BusyBox v1.20.1.
Example of
custom script
 
#!/bin/sh
#script checks if service with the same name or vid already exists
#if not creates a new entry in VTU with given VID
#
#  input parameters:
#      service_name - name of the new service
#      VID - vid of the new service
#
#  return values:
#      0 - ok
#      3 - bad parameter
#      5 - service already exists
#      6 - there already exists an entry with given VID
#     42 - other error

D42_NAME="$1"
D42_VID="$2"

D42N="service_data42"

error()
{
        echo "$D42N: Error: $*" >&2
}

info()
{
        echo "$D42N: $*" >&2
}

die()
{
        error "$*"
        exit 42 #error
}

# basic check if not empty
if [ -z "$D42_NAME" ]; then
        error "Bad service name"
        exit 3
fi
if [ -z "$D42_VID" ]; then
        error "Bad service VID"
        exit 3
fi

D42_FOUND=$(cli_nw_get --vtu all | grep "$D42_NAME")
if [ -n "$D42_FOUND" ]; then
        error "Service(s) with name $D42_NAME found"
        echo $D42_FOUND
        exit 5
fi

D42_VALID=$(cli_nw_get --vtu "$D42_VID" | sed -n 's/^valid=\(.\+\)$/\1/p')
if [ "pre_$D42_VALID" = "pre_true" ]; then
        error "VID $D42_VID is used"
        cli_nw_get --vtu "$D42_VID"
        exit 6
fi

D42_VALID=$(cli_nw_get --stu 1 | sed -n 's/^valid=\(.\+\)$/\1/p')
if [ "pre_$D42_VALID" = "pre_false" ]; then
        info "Creating STU entry with SID=1"
        cli_nw_set --stu 1 'label="D42_auto", port_state=["disabled", "disabled", "forwarding", "disabled", "disabled", "forwarding", "forwarding"]'
        if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                die "Failed to create STU entry"
        fi
fi

info "Creating service \"$D42_NAME\" with VID=$D42_VID"
cli_nw_set --vtu "$D42_VID" label="$D42_NAME" 'fid=0, sid=1, pri_override=true, priority=5, policy=false, member_tag=["unmodify", "unmodify", "tag", "unmodify", "not_member", "not_member", "unmodify"]'
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
        die "Failed to create service \"$D42_NAME\" with VID=$D42_VID"
fi

5.7. Help

Help menu

Fig. 5.35: Help menu


Help from Help menu

The Help screen displays contents of the embedded help. The help text is displayed in the whole configuration window. The text structure corresponds to individual configuration screens. Every item of this Help opens the specific help menu.

CLI help visible
Allows displaying of the CLI help with examples.
Third party
documentation
Allows displaying references to the third party documentation (e.g. internal switch documentation).

Help from configuration menu

Clicking the name of the specific parameter in the configuration menu brings up the help belonging to this parameter. The help text is displayed in the pop-up window:

Parameter help

Fig. 5.36: Parameter help


There is a Go to help link within the help text. It displays the whole configuration menu help:

Configuration menu help

Fig. 5.37: Configuration menu help


There is a link on each help screen which points to the respective configuration screen.

Clicking the question mark icon in the upper right corner of the configuration screen brings a summary help for the configuration screen in the pop up window:

Summary help

Fig. 5.38: Summary help


The Help window can be moved by dragging the Hints bar. Resize it by dragging the bottom corner.

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