Web Configuration

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7. Web Configuration

7.1. HOME

This page gives you a system overview. It helps you when initially setting up the device and also functions as a dashboard during normal operation.

The highest priority link which has been established successfully will become the so-called hotlink which holds the default route for outgoing packets.

Detailed information about status of each WAN interface is available in a separate window.

7.2. INTERFACES

Details for all physical connections are given in Section 4.2, “Connectors”.

7.2.1. WAN

Link Management

Each available item in the WAN Link Manager matches with the particular WAN interface – for adding an item, the respective WAN interface must be set (e.g. LAN, WWAN).

In case a WAN link goes down, the system will automatically switch over to the next link in order of priority (the priorities can be changed using the arrows on the right side of the window). A link can be either established when the switch occurs or permanently to minimize link downtime.

1st priority:

This link will be used whenever possible.

2nd priority:

The first fallback technology.

Up to four priorities can be used.

Outgoing traffic can also be distributed over multiple links on a per IP session basis. Choose the option “distributed” as an Operation Mode with the appropriate Weight.

In the following example, the outgoing traffic will be distributed between LAN2 (80 %) and WWAN1 (20 %) links.

[Note]Note

This option is general and applies to all outgoing traffic. See section 7.3.3 Multiple Routes for more detailed configuration.

We recommend using the permanent option for WAN links. However, in case of time-limited mobile tariffs, the switchover option should be used.

After clicking on the WWAN “Edit” button, you can additionally set the “IP passthrough” option for the LAN2 interface. The result is that the connected device over the LAN2 port will obtain M!DGE’s/MG102i’s mobile IP address via DHCP. In another words, M!DGE/MG102i will be transparent for the connected device and will only serve for the mobile connectivity. Typically, such connected device (e.g. firewall) will not need any special configuration facing M!DGE/MG102i, it will just use its mobile IP address (usually the public IP address).

Once established, a small subnet containing the cellular IP is created, by default the netmask is 255.255.255.248. This small subnet consists of a network and broadcast address as a regular subnet. In some situations it may lead to unreachability of several remote hosts due to IP address overlapping. If this is the case, user can manually configure the APN network, e.g. 10.203.0.0/255.255.128.0.

In any case, the M!DGE unit is reachable via the default gateway automatically obtained from M!DGE/MG102i by DHCP. The gateway IP address is set as the first available IP address after the specified APN address range. If not specified, it is the first usable IP within the /29 subnet.

Example: If the APN network is 10.203.0.0/25, the default gateway is set to 10.203.128.0. The web interface is reachable via this IP address over the LAN2 interface.

[Note]Note
  • This option is configurable within WWAN links only. Remember that LAN1 cannot be used as the port for the IP passthrough functionality.

  • LAN10 is not usable within M!DGE/MG102i routers. Do not select it.

Connection Supervision

Network outage detection can be used for switching between available WAN links and can be performed by sending pings on each link to authoritative hosts. A link will be declared as down if all trials have failed. The link will be considered up again if at least one host is reachable.

You may further specify an emergency action if no uplink can be established at all.

Configurable actions are:

  • None

  • Restart link services

  • Reboot system

Link:

The WAN link to be monitored (can be ANY for all configured links).

Mode:

Specifies whether the link is monitored during the connection establishment or only when it is already up.

Primary host:

Reference host one which will be used for checking IP connectivity (via ICMP pings).

Secondary host:

Reference host two which will be used for checking IP connectivity (via ICMP pings). The test is considered successful if either the primary or the secondary host answers.

Ping timeout:

Time for which the system is waiting for the ping response. With mobile networks the response time can be quite long (several seconds) in special cases. You can check the typical response using SYSTEM – Troubleshooting – Network Debugging – Ping. The first response typically takes a longer time than the following ones in GPRS/UMTS networks, the Ping timeout should be set to the longer time than with the first response.

Ping interval:

Time to wait before sending the next probe.

Retry interval (if ping failed):

If the first trial fails, ping hosts in this modified interval until the ping is successful or the maximum number of failed trials is reached.

Max. number of failed trials:

The maximum number of failed ping trials until the ping check will be declared as failed.

Emergency action:

Configure the Emergency action which should be taken after the maximum downtime is reached. Using “reboot” perfoms the system reboot. The option “restart services” restarts all link-related applications including the modem reset. No action is done if the “none” option is set. Configure the maximum amount of downtime in minutes for which the link could not be established.

Settings

The maximum segment size defines the largest amount of data of TCP packets (usually MTU minus 40). You may decrease the value in case of fragmentation issues or link-based limits.

MSS adjustment

Enable or disable MSS adjustment on WAN interfaces.

Maximum segment size

Maximum number of bytes in a TCP data segment.

7.2.2. Ethernet

M!DGE/MG102i routers ship with 2 (MG102i has 5) dedicated Ethernet ports (ETH1 and ETH2) which can be linked via RJ45 connectors.

ETH1 usually forms the LAN1 interface which should be used for LAN purposes. Other interfaces can be used to connect other LAN segments or for configuring a WAN link. The LAN10 interface will be available as soon as a pre-configured USB Ethernet device has been plugged in (e.g. X5 Ethernet/USB adapter).

Port Setup – Port Assignment

This menu can be used to individual assigning of Ethernet ports to LAN interfaces if you want to have different subnets per port or to use one port as the WAN inteface.

If it is desired to have both ports in the same LAN you may assign them to the same interface. Please note that the ports will be bridged by software and operated by running the Spanning Tree Protocol.

Port Setup – Link Settings

Link negotiation can be set for each Ethernet port individually. Most devices support auto negotiation which will configure the link speed automatically to comply with other devices in the network. In case of negotiation problems, you may assign the modes manually but it has to be ensured that all devices in the network utilize the same settings then.

VLAN Management

M!DGE/MG102i routers support Virtual LAN according to IEEE 802.1Q which can be used to create virtual interfaces on top of the Ethernet interface. The VLAN protocol inserts an additional header to Ethernet frames carrying a VLAN Identifier (VLAN ID) which is used for distributing the packets to the associated virtual interface. Any untagged packets, as well as packets with an unassigned ID, will be distributed to the native interface. In order to form a distinctive subnet, the network interface of a remote LAN host must be configured with the same VLAN ID as defined on the router. Further, 802.1P introduces a priority field which influences packet scheduling in the TCP/IP stack.

The following priority levels (from the lowest to the highest) exist:

ParameterVLAN Priority Levels
0Background
1Best Effort
2Excellent Effort
3Critical Applications
4Video (< 100 ms latency and jitter)
5Voice (< 10 ms latency and jitter)
6Internetwork Control
7Network Control

IP Settings

Two individual tabs will be used when different LANs are set in the Port settings menu. Each of them can be configured either in the LAN mode or in the WAN mode.

[Note]Note

The default IP addresses are as follows: 192.168.1.1/24 (LAN1) and 192.168.2.1/24 (LAN2).

Static configuration of M!DGE’s/MG102i’s own IP address and Subnet mask is available for the LAN mode. The Alias IP address enables configuring the LAN inteface with a second IP address/subnet.

[Note]Note

Setting of the IP address is interconnected with the DHCP Server (if enabled) – menu the SERVICES – DHCP Server menu.

WAN mode enables the following possibilities:

DHCP client:

The IP configuration will be retrieved from a DHCP server in the network. No further configuration is required (you may only set MTU).

Static IP:

IP configuration will be set manually. At least the Default gateway and the Primary DNS server must be configured along with the IP address and subnet mask.

PPPoE:

PPPoE is the preferred protocol when communicating with another WAN access device (like a DSL modem).

Username:

PPPoE user name to be used for authentication at the access device.

Password:

PPPoE password to be used for authentication at the access device.

Service Name:

Specifies the service name set of the access concentrator. Leave it blank unless you have many services and need to specify the one you need to connect to.

Access Concentrator Name:

This may be left blank and the client will connect to any access concentrator.

7.2.3. Mobile

SIMs

The SIM page gives an overview about the available SIM cards, their assigned modems and the current states. Once a SIM card has been inserted, assigned to a modem and successfully unlocked, the card should remain in the ready and registered state. You may update the state in order to restart PIN unlocking and trigger another network registration attempt.

Configuration

A SIM card is generally assigned to a default modem but this may switch, for instance if you set up two WWAN interfaces with one modem but different SIM cards. Close attention has to be paid when other services (such as SMS or Voice) are operating on that modem as a SIM switch will affect their operation.

You can configure the following parameters:

PIN protection

Depending on the used card, it can be necessary to unlock the SIM with a PIN code. Please check the account details associated with your SIM whether the PIN protection is enabled.

PIN code

The PIN code for unlocking the SIM card

PUK code

The PUK code for unlocking the SIM card if the card was blocked due to several wrong PIN attempts.

Default modem

The default modem assigned to this SIM card.

Bands

The list of allowed bands to which the unit can connect.

Preferred service

The preferred service type to be used with this SIM card. Remember that the link manager might change this in case of different settings. The default option is “automatic”, in areas with interfering base stations you can force a specific type (e.g. 3G-only) in order to prevent any flapping between the stations around.

Registration mode

The default option is set to “all networks”. You can limit the modem registration to “packet-switched only” (e.g. no Dial-in Server) or “circuit-switched only” option, which can be for example used for the Dial-in Server so one can use PPP over the Circuit-Switched Networks (analog modem style).

Network selection

LAI is a globally unique number that identifies the country, network provider and LAC of any given location area. It can be used to force the modem to register to a particular mobile cell in case of competing stations.
You may further initiate mobile network scan for getting networks in range and assign a LAI manually.

Query

This page allows you to send a Hayes AT command to the modem. Besides the 3GPP-conforming AT command set, further modem-specific commands can be applied which can be provided on demand. Some modems also support to run Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) requests, e.g. for querying the available balance of a pre-paid account.

WWAN Interfaces

This page can be used to manage your WWAN interfaces. The resulting link will pop up automatically on the WAN Link Management page once an interface has been added. The Mobile LED will be blinking during the connection establishment process and goes on as soon as the connection is up. Refer to the troubleshooting section or log files in case the connection did not come up.

The following mobile settings are required:

Modem

The modem to be used for this WWAN interface

SIM

The SIM card to be used for this WWAN interface

Preferred service

The preferred service type

Please note that these settings supersede the general SIM based settings as soon as the link is being dialed.

Generally, the connection settings are derived automatically as soon as the modem has been registered and the network provider has been found in our database. Otherwise, it will be required to configure the following settings:

Phone number

The phone number to be dialed, for 3G+ connections this commonly refers to be *99***1#. For circuit switched 2G connections you can enter the fixed phone number to be dialed in the international format (e.g. +420xx).

Access point name

The access point name (APN) being used

Authentication

The authentication scheme being used, if required this can be PAP or/and CHAP

Username

The username used for authentication

Password

The password used for authentication

Further on, you may configure the following advanced settings:

Required signal strength

The minimum required signal strength before the connection is dialed. It can be specified as the RSSI level in dBm units, or as the Quality level in percent. See the “more info” button to see the exact values.

Home network only

Determines whether the connection should only be dialed when registered to the home network.

Negotiate DNS

Specifies whether the DNS negotiation should be performed and the retrieved name-servers should be applied to the system.

Call to ISDN

This option must be enabled in case of 2G connections talking to an ISDN modem.

Header compression

Enables or disables Van Jacobson TCP/IP Header Compression for PPP-based connections. This feature will improve TCP/IP performance over slow serial links. Has to be supported by your provider.

Data compression

Enables or disables the data compression for PPP-based connections. Data compression reduces the packet size to improve throughput. Has to be supported by your provider.

Client address

Specifies a fixed client IP address on the mobile interface.

MTU

The Maximum Transmission Unit represents the largest amount of data that can be transmitted within one IP packet and can be defined for any WAN interface.

7.2.4. WLAN

WLAN Management

In case your router is shipping with a WLAN (or Wi-Fi) module you can operate it either as client, access point or managed mode. As a client it can create an additional WAN link which for instance can be used as backup link. As access point, it can form another LAN interface which can be either bridged to an Ethernet-based LAN interface or create a self-contained IP interface which can be used for routing and to provide services (such as DHCP/DNS/NTP) in the same way like an Ethernet LAN interface does.

If the administrative status is set to disabled, the module will be powered off in order to reduce the overall power consumption. Regarding antennas, we generally recommend using two antennas for better coverage and throughput. A second antenna is definitely mandatory if you want to achieve higher throughput rates in 802.11n.

Configurable parameters for access-point and client mode:

Regulatory Domain

Select the country the Router operates in.

Number of antennas

Set the number of connected antennas.

Antenna gain

Specify the antenna gain for the connected antennas. Please refer to the antennas datasheet for the correct gain value.

[Important]Important

Please be aware that any inappropriate parameters can lead to an infringement of conformity regulations.

A WLAN client will automatically become a WAN link and can be managed as described in chapter Section 7.2.1, “WAN”

Running as access point, you can further configure the following settings:

Operation type

Specifies the desired IEE 802.11 operation mode, 802.11a can be used in the 5 GHz band, higher throughput in 20/40 MHz mode can be achieved with 802.11n.

Radio band

Selects the radio band to be used for connections, depending on your module it could be 2.4 or 5 GHz.

Bandwidth

Specify the channel bandwidth operation mode.

Channel

Specifies the channel to be used.

StandardFrequenciesBandwidthData Rate
802.11a5 GHz20 MHz54 Mbit/s
802.11b2.4 GHz20 MHz11 Mbit/s
802.11g2.4 GHz20 MHz54 Mbit/s
802.11n2.4/5 GHz20/40 MHz300 Mbit/s

Prior to setting up an access point, it is always a good idea to run a network scan for getting a list of neighboring WLAN networks and then choose the less interfering channel. Please keep in mind that two adequate channels are required for getting good throughputs with 802.11n in the 40 MHz radio band.

Running in client mode, you can select the network to which you want to connect to and enter the required authentication settings. You may also perform a WLAN network scan and pick the settings from the discovered information directly. The credentials can be obtained by the operator of your WLAN access point.

Running in managed mode, the access-point can be controlled over CAPWAP (RFC 5415). It establishes a layer-2 tunneling protocol to encrypt transmission of user data from connected stations. You can configure the following settings:

Primary Access Controller

Specifies the primary access controller.

Secondary Access Controller

Specifies the secondary access controller.

WLAN Configuration

Running in access point mode you can define up to 4 SSIDs with each running their own network configuration. This section can be used to configure security-related settings.

SSID

The network name (called SSID).

Security mode

The desired security mode (such as WPA PSK), WPA (802.1x) can be used to authenticate against a remote RADIUS server which can be configured in Section 7.7.2, “Authentication”.

WPA/WPA2 mixed mode

WPA2 should be preferred over WPA1, running WPA/WPA2 mixed-mode offers both.

WPA cipher

The WPA cipher to be used, the default is to run both (TKIP and CCMP).

Passphrase

The passphrase used for authentication.

Force PMF

Enables Protected Management Frames.

Hide SSID

Hides the SSID.

Isolate clients

Disables client-to-client communication.

Accounting

Sets accounting profile.

The following security modes can be configured:

Off

SSID is disabled

None

No authentication, provides an open network.

WEP

WEP (is nowadays discouraged).

WPA-PSK

WPA-PSK (TKIP, CCMP) aka WPA-Personal/Enterprise, provides password-based authentication.

WPA-RADIUS

EAP-PEAP/MSCHAPv2, can be used to authenticate against a remote RADIUS server which can be configured in Section 7.7.2, “Authentication”.

WPA-TLS

EAP-TLS, performs authentication using certificates which can be configured in Section 7.7.6, “Keys & Certificates”.

Running in the client mode, it is possible to connect to one ore more remote access-points. The system will switch to the next network in the list in case one goes down and return to the highest prioritized network as soon as it comes back.

SSID

The network name (called SSID).

Priority

The required WLAN priority.

Required signal strength

Required signal strength to establish the connection.

Security mode

The desired security mode.

WPA/WPA2 mixed mode

WPA2 should be preferred over WPA1, running WPA/WPA2 mixed-mode offers both.

WPA cipher

The WPA cipher to be used, the default is to run both (TKIP and CCMP).

Identity

The identity used for WPA-RADIUS and WPA-EAP-TLS.

Passphrase

The passphrase used for authentication with WPA-PSK, otherwise the key passphrase for WPA-EAP-TLS.

Force PMF

Enables Protected Management Frames.

You can perform a WLAN network scan and pick the settings from the discovered information directly. The authentication credentials have to be obtained by the operator of the remote access point.

WLAN IP Settings

This section lets you configure the TCP/IP settings of your WLAN network.

A client interface can be run over DHCP or with a statically configured address and default gateway.

The access point networks can be bridged to any LAN interface for letting WLAN clients and Ethernet hosts operate in the same subnet. However, for multiple SSIDs we strongly recommend to set up separated interfaces in routing-mode in order to avoid unwanted access and traffic between the interfaces. The corresponding DHCP server for each network can be configured in afterwards as described in Section 7.6.2, “DHCP Server”.

Network mode

Choose whether the interface shall be operated bridged or in routing mode.

Bridge interface

If bridged, the LAN interface to which the WLAN network should be bridged.

IP address / netmask

In routing-mode, the IP address and netmask for this WLAN network.

7.2.5. USB

Administration

Enable or disable the USB administration. If enabled, any supported USB converter can be attached and configured for example as another serial link (RS232, see Section 7.2.6, “Serial Port”).

[Note]Note

Supported modules are pl2303, ch341, ftdi (quad-channel adapter), asix, pegasus and rndis.

Following parameter can be configured:

  • Enable hotplug (always enabled)

Click on the Refresh button in the tab Devices for displaying connected USB devices and add them with by clicking on the plus sign.

Autorun

This feature can be used to automatically perform a software/config update as soon as an USB storage stick has been plugged in. Following files must exist in the root directory of a FAT16/32 formatted stick:

  • For authentication: autorun.key

  • For a software update: sw-update.img

  • For a configuration update: cfg-<SERIALNO>.zip or cfg.zip

Administrative status

Enable or disable autorun feature.

Only allow enabled devices

Check this if only enabled devices are allowed to proceed with autorun.

The autorun.key file must hold valid access keys to perform any actions when the storage device is plugged in. The keys are made up of your admin password. They can be generated and downloaded. You may also define multiple keys in this file (line-after-line) in case your admin password differs if applied to multiple M!DGE/MG102i routers.

7.2.6. Serial Port

The serial protocol can function in various ways, configure it using the Edit button on the right. If the USB Administration is enabled, an extra SERIAL2 (USB) is available.

Five possibilities are available:

None

The serial port is not used at all.

Login console

A possibility to control the unit via the CLI commands when connected to the serial port (115200 8N1). There are no extra configuration parameters.

Device server

Use this option to control the serial device via IP (transmit the data over the cellular network, …). See the details below.

Protocol server

Special implementation of various serial protocols like Modbus, IEC101, DNP3, … See the details below.

SDK

This option enables controlling the serial interface via the SDK scripts (similar to C programming). See chapter SDK for more details.

Device Server

Serial Port Settings:

Configure the required RS232 parameters.

Physical protocol:

Only RS232 is supported.

Baud rate:

Specifies the baud rate of the COM port.

Data bits:

Specifies the number of data bits contained in each frame.

Parity:

Specifies the parity used with every frame that is transmitted or received.

Stop bits:

Specifies the number of stop bits used to indicate the end of a frame.

Software flow
control:

In XON/XOFF software flow control, either end can send a stop (XOFF) or start (XON) character to the other end to control the rate of incoming data.

Hardware flow
control:

While 3 wired connection is used with M!DGE/MG102i hardware flow control is not available.

Server Configuration:

Protocol on IP port:

“Telnet” or “TCP raw”

Port:

The TCP port used by the application.

Timeout:

Endless or numbered (in seconds).

Allow remote control (RFC 2217)

Telnet with the RFC 2217 extension.

Show banner

The option for displaying the banner of the connected serial device.

Allow clients from

The option for limiting the access based on the host IP address.

[Important]Important

The UDP Device Server functionality has been moved into SDK only. The required script for this functionality can be provided on demand.

Protocol Server

The port settings configuration is the same as with the Device Server – the section called “Device Server” except the Advanced settings called MTU and Idle size.

MTU

An incoming frame is closed at this size even if the stream of bytes continues. Consequently, a permanent data stream coming to the serial interface results in a sequence of MTU-sized frames sent over the network. The default value is set to 1400 bytes.

Idle size

Received frames on COM are closed when the gap between bytes is longer than the Idle value. This parameter defines the maximum gap (in milliseconds) in the received data stream. If the gap exceeds this value, the link is considered idle, the received frame is closed and forwarded to the network.

The default Idle size differs based on the serial baud rate configuration. Remember that the default Idle sizes are set to the minimal possible values:

bpsms
115200120
5760060
3840030
1920020
960010
48005
24005
12005
6005
3005

Each SCADA protocol like Modbus, DNP3, IEC101, DF1 etc. has its unique message format, most importantly its unique way of addressing the remote units. The following text is valid for all M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX units (further in this the section called “Protocol Server” referred to as a “Unit”) – the special properties for mobile GPRS/UMTS networks (e.g. limitation of broadcasting) are mentioned here. The basic task for the protocol server is to check whether a received frame is within the protocol format and is not corrupted. Most of the SCADA protocols are using some type of Error Detection Code (Checksum, CRC, LRC, BCC, etc.) for data integrity control, so each Unit calculates this code and checks it against the received one.

GPRS/UMTS mobile network operates in IP environment, so the basic task for the Protocol server is to convert SCADA serial packets to UDP datagrams. The Address translation settings are used to define the destination IP address and UDP port. Then these UDP datagrams are sent to the M!DGE/MG102i router, processed there and are forwarded as unicasts through the mobile network to their destination. When the gateway defined in the Routing table belongs to the Ethernet LAN, UDP datagrams are instead forwarded to the Ethernet interface. After reaching the gateway, the datagram is forwarded according to the Routing table.

When the UDP datagram reaches its final IP destination, it should be in a M!DGE/MG102i or RipEX router again. It is processed further according to its UDP port. It can be delivered to the Protocol server where where the datagram is decapsulated and the data received on the serial interface of the source unit are forwarded to COM. The UDP port can also be that of a Terminal server (RipEX) or any other special protocol daemon on Ethernet like Modbus TCP etc. The datagram is then processed according to the respective settings.

[Note]Note

All timeouts in the parameters described below are derived from the time when the packet is sent into the COM driver, i.e. it includes the transfer time of the packet. Take this into account especially when there is a low Baud rate set in the COM settings.

[Important]Important

If configuring the Protocol server together with VPN tunnels the “Poll response control” protocol specific parameter must be turned off.

 

Common parameters

For any SCADA protocol, the Transport protocol and the specific port can be chosen. The default values is UDP port 8882. The unit listens on this port for incoming messages and forwards them to the Protocol server itself.

[Note]Note

Only UDP protocol is currently implemented.

The parameters described in this section are typical of most protocols.
There is only a link to them in description of the respective Protocol.

Mode of Connected device
List box: Master, Slave
Default = Master
The typical SCADA application follows the Master–Slave scheme where the structure of the message is different for the Master and Slave SCADA units. Because of that, it is necessary to set which type of SCADA unit is connected to the Unit.

[Important]Important

For the SCADA Master, set Master, for the SCADA Slave, set Slave.

  • Master
    TheSCADA Master always sends addressed messages to Slaves. Addressing is different for each SCADA protocol, so this is one of the main reasons why an individual Protocol server in each Unit for each SCADA protocol has to be used.

    • Broadcast
      List box: On, Off
      Default = Off
      Some Master SCADA units send broadcast messages to all Slave units. SCADA applications typically use a specific address for such messages. RipEX (Protocol utility) converts such messages into a customized IP broadcast and broadcasts it to all RipEX units resp. to all SCADA units within the network.

      [Note]Note

      Broadcasts in the GPRS/UMTS network are not possible, thus setting of broadcast functionality is not allowed with M!DGE/MG102i units.

      If On, the address for broadcast packets in the SCADA protocol has to be defined:

      • Broadcast address format – List box Hex, Dec – format in which the broadcast address is defined.

      • Broadcast address – address in the defined format (Hex, Dec)

    • Address translation
      List box: Table, Mask
      Default = Mask
      In a SCADA protocol, each SCADA unit has a unique address, a “Protocol address”. In a GPRS/UMTS mobile network, each SCADA unit is represented by an IP address (typically that of the ETH interface) and a UDP port (that of the protocol daemon or the COM port server to which the SCADA device is connected via serial interface).
      A translation between the “Protocol address” and the IP address & UDP port pair has to be done. It can be done either via Table or Mask.
      Hence, a SCADA message received from the serial interface is encapsulated into a UDP/IP datagram, where the destination IP address and the destination UDP port are defined according to the settings of the Address translation.

      • Mask

        Translation using the Mask is simpler to set, however it has some limitations:
        − all IP addresses used have to be within the same network, which is defined by this Mask
        −the same UDP port is used for all the SCADA units, which results in the following:
          − SCADA devices on all sites have to be connected to the same interface
          − only one SCADA device can be connected to one COM port

        • Base IP
          Default = IP address of the ETH interface
          When creating the IP destination address of UDP datagram, in which the serial SCADA message received from COM is encapsulated, thi is created, this Base IP is taken as the basis and only the part defined by the Mask is replaced by the ‘Protocol address’.

        • Mask
          Default = 255.255.255.0
          A part of the Base IP address defined by this Mask is replaced by the ‘Protocol address’. The SCADA protocol address is typically 1 byte, so Mask 255.255.255.0 is most frequently used.

        • UDP port (Interface)
          List box: COM, Manual
          This UDP port is used as the destination UDP port in the UDP datagram in which the serial SCADA packet received from COM1 is encapsulated. The default UDP port for COM can be used or the UDP port can be set manually. If the destination IP address belongs to a Unit and the UDP port is not assigned to COM (COM1(2) or to a Terminal server in case of RipEX) or to any special daemon running in the destination address, the packet is discarded.

          [Note]Note

          M!DGE/MG102i use UDP port 8882 for its COM port.

      • Table
        The Address translation is defined in a table. There are no limitations such as when the Mask translation is used. If there are more SCADA units on the RS485 (e.g. with RipEX COM2) their interface, their “Protocol addresses” should be translated to the same IP address and UDP port pair, where the multiple SCADA units are connected. There are 3 possibilities how to fill in the line in the table:
        − One “Protocol address” to one “IP address” (e.g.: 56 −−> 192.168.20.20)
        − Range of “Protocol addresses” to one “IP address” (e.g.: 56 – 62 ===> 192.168.20.20)
        − Range of “Protocol addresses” to range of “IP addresses” (e.g.: 56 – 62 ===> 192.168.20.20 – 26). One option is to write only the start IP and a dash, the system will add the end address itself.

        • Protocol address
          This is the address which is used by the SCADA protocol. It may be set either in Hexadecimal or Decimal format according to the List box value.
          Protocol address length can be 1 byte, but for the DNP3 and UNI protocols support 2 bytes addresses.

        • IP
          The IP address to which Protocol address will be translated. This IP address is used as the destination IP address in the UDP datagram in which serial SCADA packet received from COM is encapsulated.

        • UDP port (Interface)
          This is the UDP port number which is used as the destination UDP port in the UDP datagram in which the serial SCADA message, received from COM, is encapsulated.

        • Note
          You may add a note to each address up to 16 characters long for your convenience. (E.g. “Remote unit #1”).

        • Active
          You may tick/un-tick each translation line in order to make it active/not active.

        • Modify
          Edit, Delete Add buttons allow to edit or to add or to delete a line. The lines can be sorted using up and down arrows.

  • Slave
    The SCADA Slave typically only responds to Master requests, however in some SCADA protocols it can communicate spontaneously.
    Messages from the serial interface are processed in a similar way as the Master site, i.e. they are encapsulated in UDP datagrams, processed by the router inside the M!DGE/MG102i unit and forwarded to the respective interface, typically to the mobile network.

    • Broadcast accept
      List box: On, Off
      Default = Off
      If On, broadcast messages from the Master SCADA device to all Slave units are accepted and sent to connected Slave SCADA unit.

      [Important]Important

      Broadcasting is not supported with mobile networks.

PROTOCOLS IMPLEMENTED:

Within several protocols, parameter “Poll response control” can be set. Turn it off if using any kind of port forwarding or VPN tunnels. Otherwise, it can be set to “On”. More details about this parameter can be found at UNI protocol description.

None

All received frames from the COM port as well as from the network are discarded.

Async link

The async link creates asynchronous link between two COM ports on different Units. Received frames from COM are sent without any processing transparently to the mobile network to set the IP destination and UDP port. Received frames from the mobile network are sent to the respective COM according to the UDP port setting.

  • Parameters

    • Destination IP
      This is the IP address of the destination Unit.

    • UDP port (Interface)
      This is the UDP port number which is used as the destination UDP port in the UDP datagram in which the packet received from COM is encapsulated.

C24

C24 is a serial polling-type communication protocol used in Master–Slave applications.

Multiple C24 Masters can be used within one network and one Slave can be polled by more than one Master.

Underlined parameters are described in Common parameters.

  • Protocol frames
    List box: 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C
    Default = 1C
    One of the possible C24 Protocol frames can be selected.

  • Frames format
    List box: Format1, Format2, Format3, Format4, Format5
    Default = Format1
    One of the possible C24 Frames formats can be selected. According to the C24 protocol specification, it is possible to set Frames formats 1–4 for Protocol frames 1C–3C and formats 1–5 for 4C.

    [Important]Important

    The Unit accepts only the set Protocol frames and Frames format combination. All other combinations frames are discarded by the Unit and not passed to the application.

  • Local ACK
    List box: Off, On
    Default = Off
    Available for Protocol frame 1C only. When On, ACK on COM is send locally from this unit, not over the mobile network.

Cactus

Cactus is a serial polling-type communication protocol used in Master–Slave applications.
Multiple Cactus Masters can be used within one network and one Slave can be polled by more than one Master.


Underlined parameters are described in Common parameters.

Mode of Connected device
 Master
  Broadcast
  Note: There is no the possibility to set Broadcast address, since Cactus broadcast messages always have the address 0x00. Hence when the Broadcast is On, packets with this destination are handled as broadcasts. Broadcasting is not supported with mobile networks.
  Address translation
   Table
   Mask
 Slave
  Broadcast accept
  • Max gap timeout [ms]
    Default = 30
    The longest time gap for which a frame can be interrupted and still received successfully as one frame. It should not be set below 10ms, while 15–40 ms should be OK for a typical Cactus protocol device.

Comli

Comli is a serial polling-type communication protocol used by Master–Slave applications.
More Comli Masters can be used within one network and one Slave can be polled by more Masters.
Broadcasts packets are not used, so the configuration is using only some parameters described in Common parameters.

DF1

Only the full-duplex mode of DF1 is supported. Each frame in the Allen-Bradley DF1 protocol contains the source and destination addresses in its header, so there is no difference between Master and Slave in the full-duplex mode in terms of Unit configuration.

  • Block control mode
    List box: BCC, CRC
    Default = BCC
    According to the DF1 specification, either BCC or CRC for Block control mode (data integrity) can be used.

  • Broadcast
    According to the DF1 specification, packets for the destination address 0xFF are considered broadcasts. Broadcasts are not supported with the mobile network.

  • Advanced parameters

    • ACK Locally
      List box: Off, On
      Default = On
      If “On“, ACK frames (0x1006) are not transferred over-the-air.
      When the Unit receives a data frame from the connected device, it generates the ACK frame (0x1006) locally. When the Unit receives the data frame from the mobile network, it sends the frame to the connected device and waits for the ACK. If the ACK is not received within 1 sec. timeout, Unit sends ENQ (0x1005). ENQ and ACK are not generated for broadcast packets.

DNP3

Each frame in the DNP3 protocol contains the source and destination addresses in its header, so there is no difference between Master and Slave in terms of the M!DGE/MG102i configuration. The DNP3 allows both Master–Slave polling as well as spontaneous communication from remote units.

  • BroadcastNote: There is not the option to set the Broadcast address, since DNP3 broadcast messages always have addresses in the range 0xFFFD – 0xFFFF. Broadcasting is not supported by mobile networks, thus it is not possible to set the broadcast to On..

IEC 870-5-101

IEC 870-5-101 is a serial polling-type communication protocol used by Master–Slave application.
More IEC 870-5-101 Masters can be used within one network and one Slave can be polled by more Masters.
IEC 870-5-101 protocol configuration is using all parameters described in Common parameters.

Mode of Connected device
 Master
  Broadcast – only On, Off. Protocol broadcast address is not configurable, it is defined by Address mode in Advance parameter (default 0xFF), but broadcasting is not allowed within mobile networks.
  Address translation
   Table
   Mask
 Slave
  Broadcast accept
  • Advanced parameters

    • Address mode
      Even if IEC 870-5-101 is the standard, there are some users who have customized this standard according to their needs. If addressed byte has been moved, M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX has to read it at the correct frame position.

      • IEC101
        Address byte location according to IEC 870-5-101 standard.
        Broadcast from Master station is generated when address byte is 0xFF.

      • 2B ADDR
        Two byte address (IEC 870-5-101 standard is 1 byte). The frame is 1 byte longer than the standard one. There is the Intel sequence of bytes: low byte, high byte. Mask Address translation has to be used, because Table one is limited to just one byte address length.
        The Master station broadcast is generated when the low address byte is 0xFF and high address byte is also 0xFF.

      • TELEGYR
        The Control byte in the standard IEC packet is omitted. The frame is 1 byte shorter than a standard one. This is typically used in the Telegyr 805/809 protocol.
        Broadcast from Master station broadcast is generated when the address byte is 0x00.

      • SINAUT
        The sequence of Address byte and Control byte in the frame is swapped-over.
        Master station broadcast is generated when the address byte is 0x00.

ITT Flygt

ITT Flygt is a serial polling-type communication protocol used in Master–Slave applications.

ITT Flygt protocol configuration uses all parameters described in Common parameters.

Mode of Connected device
 Master 
  Broadcast
 

Note: There is no possibility to set the Broadcast address, since ITT Flygt broadcast messages always have the address 0xFFFF. Hence when the Broadcast is On, packets with this destination are handled as broadcasts. Broadcasting is not available with mobile GPRS/UMTS networks.

  • First Slave Address
    Default = 1
    Slave addresses are not defined in the ITT Flygt protocol. However Slave addresses have to be defined in the Unit network. This is the First Slave address in decimal format.

  • Number of Slaves
    Default = 1
    Since the ITT Flygt protocol Master (centre) polls the Slaves (remotes) one by one without any addressing, the number of Slaves has to be defined.

  Address translation
   Table
   Mask
 Slave
  Broadcast accept
  • Wait timeout [ms]
    Default = 5000
    An ITT Flygt Slave sometimes sends the WAIT COMMAND (0x13) to its Master. The Unit does not accept the next WAIT COMMAND (discards it), till the Wait timeout expires. The Recommended value is in the 1–10 seconds range.

Modbus

Modbus RTU is a serial polling-type communication protocol used by Master–Slave application.
More Modbus Masters can be used within one network and one Slave can be polled by more Masters.
Modbus protocol configuration uses all parameters described in Common parameters.

Profibus

RipEX supports Profibus DP (Process Field Bus, Decentralized Periphery) the widest-spread version of Profibus. The Profibus DP is supported even by M!DGE/MG102i, but it will work satisfactorily only with mobile networks with very short transport delays, like LTE or UMTS. The Profibus protocol configuration uses all parameters described in Common parameters.

RP570

RP570 is a serial polling-type communication protocol used in Master–Slave applications.

Multiple RP570 Masters can be used within one network and one Slave can be polled by more than one Master.

Underlined parameters are described in Common parameters.

  • Local simulation RB
    List box: Off, On
    Default = Off
    The RP570 protocol Master very often transmits the RB packets (hold packets) solely to check whether Slaves are connected. In order to minimize the mobile network payload, the Unit can be configured to respond to these packets locally and not to transmit them to the Slaves over the mobile network.

    If On, the Unit responds to RB packets received from the RP 570 master locally over the COM interface. However from time to time (RB period) the RB packets are transferred over the network in order to check whether the respective Slave is still on. When the RB response from the Slave to this RB packet is not received over the mobile network within the set RB timeout, i.e. the respective Slave is out of order, the central Unit stops local answering to RB packets from the master for the respective Slave.

  • RB Net period [s]
    Default = 10
    The M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX responds to the RB packets locally and in the set RB period the RB packets are transferred over the network.

  • RB Net timeout [s]
    Default = 10 (maximum=8190)
    Whenever an RB packet is sent over the network, the set RB Net timeout starts. When the RB response from the remote unit (Slave) is not received within the timeout, i.e. the respective Slave is out of order, the central Unit stops the local answering to RB packets from the master for the respective Slave.

  • Local simulation RB
    List box: Off, On
    Default = Off
    The RP570 Slave expects to receive RB packets from the Master. When the Local simulation RB on the Master is On, the RB packets are transferred over the mobile network only in the RB Net period (see the Master settings). The Local simulation RB has to be set the same (On or Off) on all sites in the network, i.e. on the master as well as all Slaves.

    If On, the Unit generates RB packets locally and transmits them over the COM interface in the RB Request period and expects the RB response for each RB packet from the RP570 Slave within the RB Response timeout. When the Unit does not receive the response(s) from the RP570 Slave, the Unit does not respond to the RB packet from the Master, which it receives over the mobile networks.

  • RB Request period [ms]
    Default = 200 (maximum=8190)
    M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX sends locally RB packets to the connected RTU in the set period.

  • RB Response timeout [ms]
    Default = 500 (maximum=8190)
    The Unit expects a response to the RB packet within the set timeout. If it is not received, the Unit does not respond to RB packets from the Master received over the mobile network.

  • RTU address (Hex)
    Default = 01
    Active only when the Local simulation RB is On. The connected RTU’s address is supposed to be filled in. This address (0x00-0xFF) is used in the RB packets generated locally in the M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX and transmitted over the COM.

Siemens 3964(R)

The 3964 protocol is utilized by the Siemens Company as a Point-to-Point connection between two controllers. Meanwhile it has become an industry standard that can be found on many devices as a universal communications interface. 3964R is the same as 3964, in addition it only uses BCC (Block Check Character). 3964(R) handle only the link layer (L2 in OSI model), hence Unit uses a similar way to read “SCADA address” as in UNI protocol.

There is a handshake STX(0x02) – DLE(Ox10) at the start of communication and DLE+ETX – DLE at the end. This handshake is performed by RipEX locally, it is not transferred over the RipEX network.

Communication goes as follows:
LocalRTU→STX→LocalRipex
LocalRipex→DLE→LocalRTU
LocalRTU→DATA+DLE+ETX+BCC→LocalRipex
LocalRipex→DATA→RemoteRipex*
LocalRipex→DLE→LocalRTU
RemoteRipex→STX→RemoteRTU
RemoteRTU→DLE→RemoteRipex
RemoteRipex→DATA+DLE+ETX+BCC→RemoteRTU
RemoteRTU→DLE→RemoteRipex

* only this packet is transferred over the RipEX network, all the other ones are handled locally.

Underlined parameters are described in Common parameters.

Mode of Connected device
 Master 
 
  • Address mode
    List box: Binary (1 B), Binary (2B LSB first). Binary (2B MSB first).
    Default = Binary (1 B)
    M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX reads the Protocol address in the format and length set (in bytes).

  • Address position
    Specify the sequence number of the byte, where the Protocol address starts.

    Note 1: 3964(R) protocol uses an escape sequence (control sequence) for DLE (0x10), i.e. when 0x10 is in user data, 0x1010 is sent instead. When the address position is calculated, the bytes added by the escape sequence algorithm are not taken into account.

    Note 2: The first byte in the packet has the sequence number 1, not 0.

  Broadcast
  Address translation
   Table
   Mask
 Slave
  Broadcast accept
  • DLE timeout [ms]
    Default = 1000 (min. 300, max. 8190)

    M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX expects a response (DLE) from the connected device (RTU) within the set timeout. If it is not received, the Unit repeats the frame according to the “Retries” setting.

  • Retries [No]
    Default = 3 (min. 0, max. 7)

    When DLE timeout is „On“, and the DLE packet is not received from the connected device (RTU) within the set DLE timeout, the Unit retransmits the frame. The number of possible retries is specified.

  • Priority
    List box: Low, High
    Default = Low

    When the equipment sends STX and receives STX instead of DLE, there is a collision, both devices want to start communication. In such a case, one unit has to have priority. If the Priority is High, the Unit waits for DLE. When it is Low, the Unit send DLE.

    Note: Obviously, two devices which are communicating together must be set so that one has High priority and the other has Low.

  • BCC
    List box: On, Off
    Default = On

    BCC (Block Check Character) is a control byte used for data integrity control, it makes the reliability higher. BCC is used by 3964R, 3964 does not use it.

    The unit checks (calculates itself) this byte while receiving a packet on COM. Unit transmits DLE (accepts the frame) only when the check result is OK. The BCC byte is not transferred over the network, it is calculated locally in the end Unit and appended to the received data.

UNI

UNI is the “Universal” protocol utility designed by RACOM. It is supposed to be used when the application protocol is not in the Unit list. The key condition is that messages generated by the Master application device always contain the respective Slave address and that address (or its relevant part) position, relative to the beginning of the message (packet, frame), is always the same (Address position).

Generally two communication modes are typical for the UNI protocol: In the first one, communication always has to be initiated by the Master and only one response to a request is supported; in the second mode, Master-Master communication or combination of UNI protocol with ASYNC LINK protocol and spontaneous packet generation on remote sites are possible.

The UNI protocol is fully transparent, i.e. all messages are transported and delivered in full, without any modifications.

Underlined parameters are described in Common parameters.

Mode of Connected device
 Master 
 
  • Address mode
    List box: Binary (1 B), ASCII (2 B), Binary (2B LSB first). Binary (2B MSB first).
    Default = Binary (1 B)
    M!DGE/MG102i/RipEX reads the Protocol address in the format and length set (in bytes).

    The ASCII 2-byte format is read as 2-character hexadecimal representation of one-byte value. E.g. ASCII characters AB are read as 0xAB hex (10101011 binary, 171 decimal) value.

  • Address position
    Specify the sequence number of the byte, where the Protocol address starts. Note that the first byte in the packet has the sequence number 1, not 0.

  • Address mask (Hex)
    When the Address mode is Binary 2 bytes, a 16-bit value is read from the SCADA protocol message according to the Address mode setting (either the MSB or the LSB first), The resulting value is then bit-masked by the Address mask and used as the input value for SCADA to IP address translation (e.g. via a table). The default value of the Address mask is 0xFFFF, hence the full 16-bit value is used by default.

    Example:
    The Address mode is set to Binary (2B LSB first), the Address mask is set to 7FF0 and the Address position is set to 2. The SCADA message starts with bytes (in hex) 02 DA 92 C3 .. The 2-byte address is read as 0x92DA (note the LSB came first in the message), Then 0x7FF0 mask is applied and the resulting value 0x12D0 (0x92DA & 0x7FF0) is used as the input for the translation.

  • Poll response control
    List box: On, Off
    Default = On

    On – The Master accepts only one response per request and it must come from the the specific remote to which the request was sent. All other packets are discarded. This applies to the Master–Slave communication scheme.

    Note: It may happen, that a response from a Slave (No.1) is delivered after the respective timeout expired and the Master generates the request for the next Slave (No.2) in the meantime. In such a case the delayed response from No.1 would have been considered as the response from No.2. When Poll response control is On, the delayed response from the Slave No.1 is discarded and the Master stays ready for the response from No.2.

    Off – The Master does not check packets incoming from the mobile network – all packets are passed to the application. That allows e.g. spontaneous packets to be generated at remote sites. This mode is suitable for the Master–Master communication scheme or a combination of the UNI and ASYNC LINK protocols.

  Broadcast
  Address translation
   Table
   Mask
 Slave
  Broadcast accept

7.2.7. Digital I/O

The Digital I/O page displays the current status of the I/O ports and can be used to turn output ports on or off.

You can apply the following settings:

Besides on and off you may keep the status after reboot at default which corresponds to the default state as the hardware will be initialized at power-up.

The digital inputs and outputs can also be monitored and controlled by SDK scripts.

7.2.8. GNSS

Administration

The GNSS (GPS) page lets you enable or disable the GPS modules present in the system and can be used to configure the daemon that can be used to share access to receivers without contention or loss of data and to respond to queries with a format that is substantially easier to parse than the NMEA 0183 emitted directly by the GPS device.

We are currently running the Berlios GPS daemon (version 3.15), please navigate to http://gpsd.berlios.de for getting more information about how to incorporate it. The GPS values can also be queried by the CLI and used in SDK scripts.

[Note]Note

A valid license key is required for running GPS.

Administrative status

Enable or disable GPS reception.

Operation mode

The operation mode, either standalone or assisted (for A-GPS, improving the startup performance)

Antenna type

The type of the connected GPS antenna, either active or passive.

Accuracy

The desired accuracy in meters.

Fix frame interval

The amount of time to wait between fix attempts

Server port

The TCP port on which the daemon is listening for incoming connections.

Allow clients from

Specifies where clients can connect from, can be either everywhere or from a specific network.

Clients start

Specifies how client reception is started upon connect. You can specify on request, which typically requires an R to be sent, or raw/super-raw mode which will transmit NMEA frames to the client instantly. If the client supports the JSON format (i.e. newer libgps is used) the json mode can be specified.

SUPL host/port (in case of A-GPS)

The SUPL host/port (IP, hostname) which provides us the information of GPS satellites via data transmission.

APN

Access point name (the same as for data transmission set for the mobile connection).

[Note]Note

Please consider to restrict access to the server port, either by a specifying a dedicated client network or by using a firewall rule.

Position

This page shows the current position of the box together with a location map.

Latitude

The geographic coordinate specifying the north-south position.

Longitude

The geographic coordinate specifying the east-west position.

Altitude

The height above sea level of the current location.

Location

Name of the current location.

Satellites

This page provides you with a satellite view with some additional details.

In the HOME menu, under GNSS status, you can see the current status together with a lot of information about satellites in range.

Time of last fix

The time when the GPS was updated for the last time.

Satellites in view

The number of satellites in view as stated in GPGSV frames.

Speed

The horizontal and vertical speed in meter per second as stated in GPRMC frames.

Dilution of precision

The dilution of precision as stated in GPGSA frames.

Satellites used

The number of satellites used for calculating the position as stated in GPGGA frames.

Further on, each satellite also comes with the following details:

PRN

The PRN code of the satellite (also referred as satellite ID) as stated in GPGSA frames.

Elevation

The elevation (up-down angle between the dish pointing direction) in degrees as stated in GPGSV frames.

Azimuth

The azimuth (rotation around the vertical axis) in degrees as stated in GPGSV frames.

SNR

The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio), often referred as signal strength.

Please note that the values are shown as calculated by the daemon, their accuracy might be suggestive.

Supervision

Administrative status

Enable or disable GNSS supervision.

Mode

The mode of Supervision – what is validated.

Max. downtime

The period of time without valid NMEA information after which an emergency action will be taken.

Emergency action

The corresponding emergency action. You can either let just restart the server which also re-initializes GPS on the module or also reset the module in severe cases. Please note that this might also have effect any running WWAN/SMS services.

7.3. ROUTING

7.3.1. Static Routes

This menu shows all routing entries of the system, which can consist of active and configured ones. (Netmasks can be specified in CIDR notation, e.g. 24 expands to 255.255.255.0). 

Destination:

Destination network or host provided by IP addresses in dotted decimal.

Netmask:

Subnet mask which forms, in combination with the destination, the network to be addressed. A single host can be specified by a netmask of 255.255.255.255, a default route corresponds to 0.0.0.0.

Gateway:

The next hop which operates as gateway for this network (can be omitted on peer-to-peer links).

Interface:

Network interface on which a packet will be transmitted in order to reach the gateway or network behind.

Metric:

The routing metric of the interface (default 0). The routing metric is used by routing protocols, higher metrics have the effect of making a route less favourable; metrics are counted as additional costs to the destination network.

Flags:

(A)ctive, (P)ersistent, (H)ost Route, (N)etwork Route, (D)efault Route

The flags obtain the following meanings:

Active

The route is considered active, it might be inactive if the interface for this route is not yet up

Persistent

The route is persistent, which means it is a configured route, otherwise it corresponds to an interface route

Host

The route is a host route, typically the netmask is set to 255.255.255.255.

Network

The route is a network route, consisting of an address and netmask which forms the subnet to be addressed

Default Route

The route is a default route, address and netmask are set to 0.0.0.0, thus matching any packet

You can check the corresponding routing via the “Route lookup” functionality. Just fill in the desired IP address and click on the “Lookup” button. The detailed information about the chosen route will be displayed.

[Note]Note

The maximum number of manual static routes is 10. This number can be increased to 30 with a SERVER licence.

7.3.2. Extended Routes

Extended routes can be used to perform policy-based routing, they generally precede static routes.

Extended routes can be made up not only of a destination address/netmask but also a source address/netmask, incoming interface and the type of service (TOS) of packets.

Incoming interface

The interface on which the packet enters the system

Source address

The packet source address

Source netmask

The packet source netmask

Destination address

The packet destination address

Destination netmask

The packet destination netmask

Protocol

Protocol used (ANY, UDP or TCP)

Type of Service

The ToS value within the packet header (possible values are any, normal-service (0), minimize-cost (2), maximize-reliability (4), maximize-throughput (8), minimize-delay (16))

Route to

Specifies the target interface or gateway to where the packet should get routed to. Check the “discard if down” option for discarding data if the Interface is down (e.g. nothing is connected).

7.3.3. Multipath Routes

Multipath routes perform weighted IP-session distribution for particular subnets across multiple interfaces.

At least two interfaces must be defined to establish the Multipath routing. Additional interfaces can be added by pressing the “plus” sign.

Target network/netmask

The target network for which the Multipath routing will be applied

Interface

The interface for the selected path

Weight

Interface weight in relation to the others (e.g. values 4 and 1 for two paths will result in 80 and 20 % of distribution)

Nexthop

Nexthop address to be used as a default gateway for the selected interface

7.3.4. Multicast

Multicast routing (MCR) can be configured and managed by a daemon. Only one MCR daemon can be used at a time.

M!DGE/MG102i routers ship with two different MCR daemons to select from, depending on your dependencies:

IGMP proxy

Forwarding of multicast messages that are dynamically detected on a given interface to another interface.

Static routes

List of MCR rules to forward messages of dedicated source and group from a given interface to another.

Disabled

Disable routing of multicast messages.

IGMP proxy

IGMP proxy which is able to maintain multicast groups on a particular interface and distribute incoming multicast packets towards the downstream interfaces on which hosts have joined the groups.

Administrative status

Specifies whether multicast routing is active.

Incoming interface

The upstream interface on which multicast groups are joined and on which multicast packets come in.

Distribute to

Specifies the downstream interfaces to which multicast packets will be forwarded.

Static Routes

Routes multicast messages in different directions depending on their origin and group based on a given set of MCR rules:

Group

IP address of MCR group.

Source

Source-IP of the packets.

Incoming interface

Interface to listen on for messages of given group and source.

Outgoing interface

Interface to forward the messages to.

7.3.5. BGP

The BGP tab allows to set up peerings of the M!DGE/MG102i router with other Border Gateway Protocol enabled routers.

BGP status

Specifies whether the BGP routing protocol is active.

AS number

The number of the autonomous system to which the M!DGE/MG102i router belongs (available range: 1 – 4294967295).

Redistribute connected routes

Redistribute routes to networks which are directly connected to the M!DGE/MG102i router.

Redistribute local routes

Redistribute routes from the M!DGE/MG102i router’s own routing table.

Redistribute OSPF routes

Redistribute routes learned via the OSPF routing protocol.

Disable when redundancy backup

Disables the BGP protocol when the router is set to slave mode by the VRRP redundancy protocol.

The neighbors tab is used to configure all the BGP routers to peer with.

IP address

IP address of the peer router.

As number

Autonomous system number of the peer router (available range 1 – 4294967295).

Password

Password for authentication with the peer router. If left blank authentication is disabled.

Multihop

Allow multiple hops between this router and the peer router instead of requiring the peer to be directly connected.

The Networks tab allows to add IP network prefixes that shall be distributed via BGP in addition to the networks that are redistributed from other sources as defined on the general tab.

Prefix

Prefix of the network to be distributed.

Prefix length

Length of the prefix to be distributed.

7.3.6. OSPF

The OSPF tab allows the M!DGE/MG102i router to be added to a network of OSPF routers.

OSPF status

Specifies whether the OSPF routing protocol is active.

Redistribute connected routes

Redistribute routes to networks which are directly connected to the M!DGE/MG102i router.

Redistribute local routes

Redistribute routes from the M!DGE/MG102i router’s own routing table.

Redistribute BGP routes

Redistribute routes learned via the BGP routing protocol.

Redistribute default route

Redistribute the routers default route.

Disable when redundancy backup

Disables the OSPF protocol when the router is set to slave mode by the VRRP redundancy protocol.

The interfaces tab is used to define OSPF specific settings for the IP interfaces of the router. If no settings are defined for a specific interface, default settings will be used.

Interface

The name of the interface for which settings shall be defined.

Authentication

The authentication protocol to be used on the interface to authenticate OSPF packets.

Key

The key to be used for authentication.

Key ID

The ID of the key to be used for authentication (1-255).

Cost

The cost for sending packets via this interface. If not specified or set to 0, OSPF defaults are used.

Passive

Do not send out OSPF packets on this interface.

The networks tab defines the IP networks to be handled in OSPF as well as to which routing area they belong.

Prefix

Prefix of the network.

Prefix length

Length of the prefix.

Area

Routing area to which this interface belongs (0-65535, 0 means backbone).

7.3.7. Mobile IP

Mobile IP (MIP) can be used to enable a seamless switch between different WAN technologies.

[Note]Note

A valid license key is required for running Mobile IP.

It boasts with very small outages during switchover while keeping all IP sessions alive which is being accomplished by communicating with the static public IP address of a home agent which will encapsulate the packets and send them further to the router. Switching works by telling the home agent that the hotlink address has changed, the agent will then re-route (that means encapsulate the packets with the new target address) the packets transparently down to the box.

Our implementation supports RFC 3344, 5177, 3024 and 3519 and interoperability with Cisco has been verified. However, M!DGE/MG102i routers can run as node and home agent which makes them able to replace expensive kits in the backbone for smaller scenarios.

If MIP is run as the Mobile node, the following settings can be configured:

Primary home agent address:

The address of the primary home agent

Secondary home agent address:

The address of the secondary (fallback) home agent

Home address:

The permanent home address of the node which can be used to address the box

SPI:

The Security Parameter Index (SPI) identifying the security context between a pair of nodes (represented in 8 chars hex)

Authentication type:

The used authentication, can be prefix-suffix-md5 or hmac-md5

Shared secret:

The shared secret used for authentication, can be a 128-bit hex or ASCII string

Life time:

The lifetime of security associations in seconds

MTU:

Maximum transmission unit in bytes

UDP encapsulation:

Specifies whether UDP encapsulation shall be used

Mobile network address:

Optionally specifies a subnet which should be routed to the box

Mobile network mask:

The netmask for the optional routed network

If MIP is run as home agent, you will have to set up a home address and netmask first and configure various nodes afterwards which are made up of the following settings:

SPI

The home address of the network

Authentication type

The mask for the home network.

Shared secret

The shared secret used for the mobile node authentication at the home agent. This can be either a 128-bit hexadecimal value or a random length ASCII string.

7.3.8. Quality of Service (QoS)

M!DGE/MG102i routers are able to prioritize and shape certain kinds of IP traffic. This is currently limited on egress, which means that only outgoing traffic can be stipulated. The current QoS solution is using Stochastic Fairness Queueing (SFQ) classes in combination with Hierarchy Token Bucket (HTB) qdiscs. Its principle of operation can be summarized as ceiling the max. throughput per link and shaping traffic by reflecting the specified queue priorities. In general, the lowest priority number of a queue gets most out of the available bandwidth.

In case of demands for other class or qdisc algorithms please contact our support team in order to evaluate the best approach for your application.

QoS Administration

The administration page can be used to enable and disable QoS.

QoS Classification

The classification section can be used to define the WAN interfaces on which QoS should be active.

Interface:

The WAN interface on which QoS should be active.

Bandwidth congestion:

The bandwidth congestion method. In case of the auto option, the system will try to apply limits in a best-effort way. However, it is suggested to set fixed bandwidth limits as they also offer a way of tuning the QoS behaviour.

Upstream bandwidth:

The available bandwidth for outgoing traffic.

IP to ping (primary)

An IP, which answers ICMP echo requests to determine the bandwidth of the link.

IP to ping (secondary)

An IP, which answers ICMP echo requests to determine the bandwidth of the link.

When defining limits, you should consider bandwidth limits which are at least possible as most shaping and queues algorithms will not work correctly if the specified limits cannot be achieved. In particular, any WWAN interfaces operating in a mobile environment are suffering variable bandwidths, thus rather lower values should be used.

In case an interface has been activated, the system will automatically create the following queues:

high:

A high priority queue which may hold any latency-critical services (such as VoIP).

default:

A default queue which will handle all other services.

low:

A low priority queue which may hold less-critical services for which shaping is intended.

Each queue can be configured as follows:

Name:

The name of the QoS queue.

Priority:

A numerical priority for the queue, lower values indicate higher priorities.

Bandwidth:

The maximum possible bandwidth for this queue in casethe total bandwidth of all queues exceeds the set upstream bandwidth of “QoS Interface Parameters”.

Set TOS

The TOS/DiffServ value to set on matching packets.

You can now configure and assign any services to each queue. The following parameters apply:

Interface:

The QoS interface of the queue

Queue:

The QoS queue to which this service shall be assigned

Source:

Specifies a network address and netmask used to match the source address of packets

Destination:

Specifies a network address and netmask used to match the destination (target) address of packets

Protocol:

Specifies the protocol for packets to be matched

Type of Service:

Specifies the ToS/DiffServ for packets to be matched

7.4. FIREWALL

This router uses Linux’s netfilter/iptables firewall framework (see http://www.netfilter.org for more information). It is set up of a range of rules which control each packet’s permission to pass the router. Packets, not matching any of the rules, are allowed by default.

7.4.1. Firewall

Administration

The administration page can be used to enable and disable firewalling. When turning it on, a shortcut can be used to generate a predefined set of rules which allow administration (over HTTP, HTTPS, SSH or TELNET) by default but block any other packets coming from the WAN interface. Please note that the specified rules are processed by order, that means, traversing the list from top to bottom until a matching rule is found. If there is no matching rule found, the packet is allowed.

Administrative status:

Enable or disable packet filtering.

Allow WAN administration:

This option will predefine the rules for services on the WAN link as follows (TCP ports 80, 443, 22 and 23):

Address / Port Groups

This menu can be used to form address or port groups which can be later used for firewall rules in order to reduce the number of rules.

Add Firewall Rule

Description:

A meaningful description about the purpose of this rule.

Action:

Whether the packets of this rule should be allowed or denied.

Log matches

Throw a syslog message if rule matches.

Incoming interface:

The Interface on which matching packets are received.

Outgoing interface:

The interface on which matching packets are received.

Source:

Source address of matching packets. Possible values are “ANY”, “LOCAL” (addressed to the system itself), “Group” or “Specify” (specified by an address/netmask).

Destination:

The destination address of matching packets, can be “ANY”, “LOCAL” (addressed … itself), “Group” or “Specify (specified by address/netmask).

Protocol:

Used IP protocol of matching packets.

Destination port(s):

Destination port of matching packets. You can specify a single port or a range of ports here. Note that protocol must be set to UDP/TCP when using port filters.

Transparent Firewall

M!DGE/MG102i can be configured with its Ethernet interfaces being bridged. In this case, the transparent firewall functionality can be configured to limit reachability of individual hosts connected to M!DGE/MG102i based on their MAC addresses, i.e. units connected to ETH1 cannot communicate to units connected to ETH2.

7.4.2. NAPT

This page allows setting of the options for Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT). NAPT translates IP addresses or TCP/UDP ports and enables communication between hosts on a private network and hosts on a public network. It generally allows a single public IP address to be used by many hosts from the private LAN network.

Administration

The administration page lets you specify the interfaces on which masquerading will be performed. NAT will hereby use the address of the selected interface and choose a random source port for outgoing connections and thus enables communication between hosts from a private local area network towards hosts on the public network.

Interface

The outgoing interface on which connections will be masqueraded.

Source address

The source address or network from which matching packets are masqueraded.

Inbound Rules

Inbound rules can be used to modify the target section of IP packets and, for instance, forward a service or port to an internal host. By doing so, you can expose that service and make it available from the Internet. You may also establish 1:1 NAT mapping for a single host using additional outbound rules.

[Note]Note

The rules are processed by order, that means, traversing the list from top to bottom until a matching rule is found. If there is no matching rule found, the packet will pass as is.

Description:

A meaningful rule description

Incoming interface:

Interface from which matching packets are received

Source

The source address or network from which matching packets are received.

Map:

Choosing whether the rule applies to the host or to the network.

Target address:

Destination address of matching packets (optional)

Target port(s):

Used UDP/TCP port range of matching packets

Redirect to:

Address to which matching packets will be redirected

Redirect port:

Port to which matching packets will be targeted

Outbound Rules

Outbound rules will modify the source section of IP packets and can be used to establish 1:1 NAT mappings but also to redirect packets to a specific service.

Description:

A meaningful description of this rule

Map:

Choosing whether the rule applies to the host or to the network.

Outging interface:

Outgoing interface on which matching packets are leaving the router

Target

The target address or network to which matching packets are destined.

Source address/ports:

Source address/ports of matching packets (if Map is set to “host”)

Source network/netmask:

Source network/netmask of matching packets (if Map is set to “network”)

Rewrite to address/port:

Address/port to which the source address/port of matching packets will be rewritten to

Rewrite to network/netmask:

Network/netmask to which the source network/netmask of matching packets will be rewritten to

7.5. VPN

7.5.1. OpenVPN

Administration

OpenVPN administrative status:

Enable or disable OpenVPN.

Restart on link change:

If checked, the tunnel is restarted whenever any link changes the status.

Multipath TCP

Enables OpenVPN multipath TCP support.

If enabled, OpenVPN client configurations will be started whenever a WAN link has been established. Server configuration will be started immediately after after the bootup.

Tunnel Configuration

The router supports a single server tunnel and up to 4 client tunnels. You can specify tunnel parameters in standard configuration or upload an expert mode file which has been created in advance. Refer to section the section called “Client Management” to learn more about how to manage clients and generate the files.

Operation mode:

Choose the client or server mode for this tunnel

[Note]Note

M!DGE/MG102i can be running up to 4 OpenVPN tunnels in the Client mode, but only one tunnel in the Server mode.

Client Mode
Peer selection:

Specifies how the remote peer shall be selected, besides a single server you may configure multiple servers which can , in case of failures, either be selected sequentially (i.e. failover) or randomly (i.e. load balancing).

Server

The remote server address or hostname

Port

The remote server port (1194 by default)

Interface type:

The VPN device type which can be either TUN (typically used for routed connections) or TAP (used for bridged networks)

Protocol:

The OpenVPN tunnel protocol to be used.

Network mode:

Defines how the packets should be forwarded, can be routed or bridged from or to a particular interface. You can also set the MTU for the tunnel.

Authentication:

You can choose between credential-based (where you have to specify a username and password) and certificate-based options. Note that keys/certificates have to be created in the SYSTEM -> Keys & Certificates menu. You may also upload files which you have generated on your host system.

HMAC digest:

HMAC is commonly used message authentication algorithm (MAC) that uses a data string, a secure has algorithm, and a key, to produce a digital signature. OpenVPN’s HMAC usage is to first encrypt a packet, then HMAC the resulting ciphertext. If OpenVPN receives a packet with a bad HMAC, it drops this packet. HMAC usually adds 16 or 20 Bytes per packet.

Encryption:

Required cipher mechanism used for encryption.

Use compression:

Enable or disable OpenVPN compression.

Use keepalive:

Can be used to send a periodic keep alive packet in order to keep the tunnel up despite inactivity.

Redirect gateway:

By redirecting the gateway, all packets will be directed to the VPN tunnel. Please ensure that essential services (such as DNS or NTP servers) can be reached via the network behind the tunnel. If in doubt, create an extra static route pointing to the correct interface.

Negotiate DNS

If enabled, the system will use the nameservers which have been negotiated over the tunnel.

Allow duplicates

Allow multiple clients with the same common name to concurrently connect.

Verify certs

Check peer certificate against local CRL.

Server Mode

A server tunnel typically requires the following files:

  • server.conf (OpenVPN configuration file),

  • ca.crt (root certificate file),

  • server.crt (certificate file),

  • server.key (private key file),

  • dh1024.pem (Diffie Hellman parameters file),

  • a directory (with default name “ccd”) containing client-specific configuration files.

[Important]Important

OpenVPN tunnels require a correct system time. Please ensure that all NTP servers are reachable. When using host names, a working DNS server is required as well.

Client Management

Once you have successfully set up an OpenVPN server tunnel, you can manage and enable clients connecting to your service. Currently connected clients can be seen on this page, including the connect time and IP address. You may kick connected clients by disabling them.

In the Networking section you can specify a fixed tunnel endpoint address for each client. Please note that, if you intend to use a fixed address for a particular client, you would have to apply fixed addresses to the other ones as well.

You may specify the network behind the clients as well as the routes to be pushed to each client. This can be useful for routing purposes, e.g. in case you want to redirect traffic for particular networks towards the server. Routing between the clients is generally not allowed but you can enable it if desired.

Finally, you can generate and download all expert mode files for enabled clients which can be used to easily populate each client.

Operating in server mode with certificates, it is possible to block a specific client by revoking a possibly stolen client certificate (see Keys & Certificates).

[Note]Note

The downloaded expert mode file needs to be unzipped and then individual client expert files can be uploaded to the respective routers.

[Note]Note

See the OpenVPN configuration example in our Application notes. (http://www.racom.eu/eng/products/m/midge/app/VPN_config.html#OpenVPN).

7.5.2. IPsec

IPsec is a protocol suite for securing IP communications by authenticating and encrypting each packet of a communication session and thus establishing a secure virtual private network.

IPsec includes various cryptographic protocols and ciphers for key exchange and data encryption and can be seen as one of the strongest VPN technologies in terms of security.

It uses the following mechanisms:

AH

Authentication Headers (AH) provide connectionless integrity and data origin authentication for IP datagrams and ensure protection against replay attacks.

ESP

Encapsulating Security Payloads (ESP) provide confidentiality, data-origin authentication, connectionless integrity, an anti-replay service and limited traffic-flow confidentiality.

SA

Security Associations (SA) provide a secure channel and a bundle of algorithms that provide the parameters necessary to operate the AH and/or ESP operations. The Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) provides a framework for authenticated key exchange.

Negotiating keys for encryption and authentication is generally done by the Internet Key Exchange protocol (IKE) which consists of two phases:

IKE phase 1

IKE authenticates the peer during this phase for setting up an ISAKMP secure association. This can be carried out by either using main or aggressive mode. The main mode approach utilizes the Diffie-Hellman key exchange and authentication is always encrypted with the negotiated key. The aggressive mode just uses hashes of the pre-shared key and therefore represents a lesssecure mechanism which should generally be avoided as it is prone to dictionary attacks.

IKE phase 2

IKE finally negotiates IPSec SA parameters and keys and sets up matching IPSec SAs in the peers which is required for AH/ESP later on.

Administration

IPsec administrative status:

Enable or disable IPsec

Propose NAT Traversal:

NAT-Traversal is mainly used for connections which traverse a path where a router modifies the IP address/port of packets. It encapsulates packets in UDP and therefore requires a slight overhead which has to be taken into account when running over smallsized MTU interfaces.

Restart on link change:

If checked, the tunnel is restarted whenever any link changes the status.

[Note]Note

Running NAT-Traversal makes IKE using UDP port 4500 rather than 500 which has to be taken into account when setting up firewall rules.

Configuration

General
Remote peer address:

The IPsec peer/responder/server IP address or host name

Administrative status:

Enable or disable Dead Peer Detection. DPD will detect any broken IPSec connection, in particular the ISAKMP tunnel, and refresh the corresponding SAs (Security Associations) and SPIs (Security Payload Identifiers) for a faster tunnel re-establishment.

Detection cycle:

Set the delay (in seconds) between Dead Peer Detection (RFC 3706) keepalives (R_U_THERE, R_U_THERE_ACK) that are sent for this connection (default 30 seconds)

Failure threshold:

The number of unanswered DPD R_U_THERE requests until the IPsec peer is considered dead (the router will then try to re-establish a dead connection automatically)

Action:

The action when a DPD enabled peer is declared dead. Hold (default) means the eroute is put into the hold status, while clear means the eroute and SA will both be cleared. Restart means that the SA will be immediately renegotiated.

IKE Proposal

RACOM routers support IKEv1 or IKEv2 authentication via the pre-shared keys (PSK) or certificates within a public key infrastructure.

Using PSK requires the following settings:

PSK:

The pre-shared key used

Local ID Type:

The identification type for the local router which can be FQDN, username@FQDN or IP address

Local ID:

The local ID value

Peer ID type:

The identification type for the remote router

Peer ID:

The peer ID value

[Note]Note

When using certificates you would need to specify the Operation mode. When run as the PKI client you can create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) in the certificates section which needs to be submitted at your Certificate Authority and imported to the router afterwards. In the PKI server mode the router represents the Certificate Authority and issues the certificates for remote peers.

Negotiation mode:

Choose the negotiation mode (main, aggressive). The aggressive mode has to be used when dealing with dynamic endpoint addresses, but it is referred to be less secure compared to the main mode as it reveals your identity to an eavesdropper.

Encryption algorithm:

The IKE encryption method (3DES, AES128, AES192, AES256)

Authentication algorithm:

The IKE authentication method (MD5, SHA1, SHA2-256)

IKE Diffie-Hellman group:

The IKE Diffie-Hellman group (2, 5 and 16-21)

SA life time:

The Security Association lifetime

Perfect forward secrecy (PFS):

This feature heavily increases security as PFS avoids penetration of the key-exchange protocol and prevents compromising the keys negotiated earlier.

Using Public Key Infrastructure requires similar settings, but the Operation mode must be configured.

Operation mode

Mode can be set either to “server” or “client”. As a “server” and once you have successfully set up an IPsec tunnel, you can manage and enable clients connecting to your service. It is possible to generate and download expert mode files for enabled clients which can be used to easily populate each client.

IPsec Proposal
Encapsulation mode:

Only the tunnel encapsulation mode is enabled

IPsec protocol:

Only the ESP IPsec protocol is enabled

Encryption algorithm:

The IKE encryption method (3DES, AES128, AES192, AES256, blowfish128, 192 and 256)

Authentication algorithm:

The IKE authentication method (MD5, SHA1, SHA256, SHA384, SHA512)

SA life time:

The Security Association lifetime in seconds

Perfect forward secrecy (PFS)

Specifies whether Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) should be used. This feature increases security as PFS avoids penetration of the key-exchange protocol and prevents compromisation of previous keys.

Force encapsulation:

Force UDP encapsulation for ESP packets even if no NAT situation is detected.

Networks

When creating Security Associations, IPsec keeps track of routed networks within the tunnel. Packets are only transmitted when a valid SA with the matching source and destination network is present. Therefore, you may need to specify the networks behind the endpoints by applying the following settings:

Local network address:

The address of your Local Area Network (LAN)

Local network mask:

The netmask of your LAN

Peer network address:

The address of the remote network behind the peer

Peer network mask:

The netmask of the remote network behind the peer

NAT address:

Optionally, you can apply NAT (masquerading) for packets coming from a different local network. The NAT address must reside in the network previously specified as the local network.

[Note]Note

Since the firmware 3.7.40.103, the maximum number of networks for individual IPsec tunnels has increased from 4 to 10.

[Note]Note

See the IPsec configuration example in our Application notes (http://www.racom.eu/eng/products/m/midge/app/index.html), Chapter 2.2 IPsec.

7.5.3. PPTP

The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks between two hosts. PPTP is easy to configure and widely deployed amongst Microsoft Dial-up networking servers. However, due to its weak encryption algorithms, it is nowadays considered insecure but it still provides a straightforward way for establishing tunnels. When setting up a PPTP tunnel, you would need to choose between server or client.

Listen address:

Specifies on which IP address should be listened for incoming client connections

Server address:

The server address within the tunnel

Client address range:

Specifies a range of IP addresses assigned to each client

Username/password:

The common username/password configuration

Once configured, individual clients can be configured with different credentials and IP addresses.

 

A client tunnel requires the following parameters to be set:

Server address:

The address of the remote server

Username:

The username used for authentication

Password:

The password used for authentication

7.5.4. GRE

The Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol that can encapsulate a wide variety of network layer protocols inside virtual point-to-point links over IP. GRE is defined in RFC 1701, 1702 and 2784. It does not provide encryption nor authorization but can be used on an address-basis on top of other VPN techniques (such as IPsec) for tunneling purposes.

The following parameters are required for setting up a tunnel:

Peer address

The remote peer IP address

Interface type

The device type for this tunnel. If “tap” device is chosen, another parameter “Bridge interface” must be configured with one LAN port.

Local tunnel address

The local IP address of the tunnel

Local tunnel netmask

The local subnet mask of the tunnel

Remote network

The remote network address of the tunnel

Remote netmask

The remote subnet mask of the tunnel

In general, the local tunnel address/netmask should not conflict with any other interface addresses. The remote network/netmask will result in an additional route entry in order to control which packets should be encapsulated and transferred over the tunnel.

7.5.5. Dial-in Server

On this page you can configure the Dial-in server in order to establish a data connection over GSM calls. Thus, one would generally apply a required service type of 2G-only, so that the modem registers to GSM only. Naturally, a concurrent use of mobile Dial-Out and Dial-In connection is not possible.

[Note]Note

The Dial-in Server is not supported by the M!DGE/MG102i LTE hardware.

Administrative status

Enabled/disabled – incoming call shall be /shall not be answered

Modem

Specifies the modem on which calls can come in

Address range start:

Start address of range of clients connecting to the dial-in server

Address range size:

Number of client addresses connecting to the server

Dial-in operational status:

Shows the current status of the connection

Besides the admin account you can configure further users in the user accounts section. which shall be allowed to dial-in. Please note that Dial-In connections are generally discouraged. As they are implemented as GSM voice calls, they suffer from unreliability and poor bandwidth.

7.6. SERVICES

7.6.1. SDK

RACOM routers are shipping with a Software Development Kit (SDK) which offers a simple and fast way to implement customer-specific functions and applications. It consists of:

  1. An SDK host which defines the runtime environment (a so-called sandbox), that is, controlling access to system resources (such as memory, storage and CPU) and, by doing so, catering for the right scalability.

  2. An interpreter language called arena, a light-weight scripting language optimized for embedded systems, which uses a syntax similar to ANSI-C but adds support for exceptions, automatic memory management and runtime polymorphism on top of that.

  3. A RACOM-specific Application Programming Interface (API), which ships with a comprehensive set of functions for accessing hardware interfaces (e.g. digital IO ports, GPS, external storage media, serial ports) but also for retrieving system status parameters, sending E-Mail or SMS messages or simply just to configure the router.

Anyone, reasonably experienced in the C language, will find an environment that is easy to dig in. However, feel free to contact us via and we will happily support you in finding a programming solution to your specific problem.

The Language

The arena scripting language offers a broad range of POSIX functions (like printf or open) and provides, together with tailor-made API functions, a simple platform for implementing any sort of applications to interconnect your favourite device or service with the router.

Here comes a short example:

/* This script prints short status and if the SMS section is setted properly, the status will be send even to your mobile phone :-)
 */
 
printf("------------------------------");
printf("\n\n");
printf(nb_status_summary(all));
printf("\n\n");
printf("------------------------------");
 
/* Please change the following number to your mobile phone number
 */
nb_sms_send("+420123456789", nb_status_summary(all));

A set of example scripts can be downloaded directly from the router, you can find a list of them in the appendix. The manual at menu SERVICES-Administration-Troubleshooting-SDK API gives a detailed introduction of the language, including a description of all available functions.

SDK API Functions

The current range of API functions can be used to implement the following features:

  1. Send/Retrieve SMS

  2. Send E-mail

  3. Read/Write from/to serial device

  4. Control digital input/output ports

  5. Run TCP/UDP servers

  6. Run IP/TCP/UDP clients

  7. Access files of mounted media (e.g. an USB stick)

  8. Retrieve status information from the system

  9. Get or set configuration parameters

  10. Write to syslog

  11. Transfer files over HTTP/FTP

  12. Perform config/software updates

  13. Control the LEDs

  14. Get system events, restart services or reboot system

  15. Scan for networks in range

  16. Create your own web pages

  17. Voice control functions

  18. SNMP functions

  19. Various network-related functions

  20. Other system-related functions

The SDK API manual at menu SERVICES-Administration-Troubleshooting-SDK API provides an overview but also explains all functions in detail.

Please note that some functions require the corresponding services (e.g. E-Mail, SMS) to be properly configured prior to utilizing them in the SDK.

Let’s now pay some attention to the very powerful API function nb_status. It can be used to query the router’s status values in the same manner as they can be shown with the CLI. It returns a structure of variables for a specific section (a list of available sections can be obtained by running cli status -h).

By using the dump function you can figure out the content of the returned structure:

/* Dump current WAN status */

dump ( nb_status ("wan") );

The script will then generate lines like maybe these:

struct(22): {
  .WANLINK1_STATE = string[2]: "up"
  .WANLINK1_STATE_UP_SINCE = string[19]: "2016-09-23 12:59:08"
  .WANLINK1_DIAL_ATTEMPTS = string[2]: "19"
  .WANLINK1_SIGNAL_LEVEL = string[2]: "19"
  .WANLINK1_DATA_UPLOADED = string[7]: "3309773"
  .WANLINK1_MODEM = string[7]: "Mobile1"
  .WANLINK1_NETWORK = string[7]: "O2 - CZ"
  .WANLINK1_DIAL_SUCCESS = string[2]: "19"
  .WANLINK1_ADDRESS = string[11]: "10.203.0.29"
  .WANLINK1_SIGNAL_QUALITY = string[4]: "weak"
  .WANLINK1_DOWNLOAD_RATE = string[2]: "12"
  .WANLINK1_SERVICE_TYPE = string[4]: "HSPA"
  .WANLINK1_UPLOAD_RATE = string[2]: "12"
  .WANLINK1_TYPE = string[4]: "wwan"
  .WANLINK1_PASSTHROUGH = string[4]: "LAN2"
  .WANLINK1_DIAL_FAILURES = string[1]: "0"
  .WANLINK1_SIM = string[4]: "SIM1"
  .WANLINK1_REGISTRATION_STATE = string[23]: "registeredInHomeNetwork"
  .WANLINK1_INTERFACE = string[5]: "WWAN1"
  .WANLINK1_DATA_DOWNLOADED = string[6]: "382656"
  .WAN_HOTLINK = string[8]: "WANLINK1"
  .WANLINK1_SIGNAL_STRENGTH = string[4]: "-104"
}

In combination with the nb_config_set function, it is possible to start a re-configuration of any parts of the system upon status changes. You may find all possible parameters by reading the /etc/config/factory-config.cfg file accessible via CLI.

/etc/config $ cat factory-config.cfg | grep ntp
network.ntp.status                              =1
network.ntp.server0                             =0.pool.ntp.org
network.ntp.server1                             =1.pool.ntp.org
network.ntp.ping                                =1
network.ntp.interval                            =256
network.ntp.gpstime                             =0
network.ntp.access.0.address                    =192.168.1.0
network.ntp.access.0.netmask                    =255.255.255.0
network.ntp.access.1.address                    =
network.ntp.access.1.netmask                    =
network.ntp.access.2.address                    =
network.ntp.access.2.netmask                    =

Here is an example how one might adopt those functions:

/* Check the current NTP server and set it to the IP address 192.168.0.2
and enable the NTP synchronisation */

printf ("The NTP server was previously using IP address: ");
printf (nb_config_get("network.ntp.server0"));
printf("\n\n");

nb_config_set("network.ntp.server0=192.168.0.2");

if (nb_config_get ("network.ntp.status") == "0"){
  printf ("and was not running.");
  printf("\n\n");
  nb_config_set ("network.ntp.status=1");
}
else {
  printf ("and was running.");
  printf("\n\n");
}

printf ("The NTP server is now running with IP address: ");
printf (nb_config_get("network.ntp.server0"));

Running SDK

In the SDK, we are speaking of scripts and triggers which form jobs. Any arena script can be uploaded to the router or imported by using dedicated user configuration packages. You may also edit the script directly at the Web Manager or select one of our examples. You also have a testing section on the router which can be used to check your syntax or doing test runs.

Once uploaded, you will have to specify a trigger, that is, telling the router when the script is to be executed. This can be either time-based (e.g. each Monday) or triggered by one of the pre-defined system events (e.g. wan-up) as described in Section 7.6.7, “Events”. With both, a script and a trigger, you can finally set up an SDK job now. The test event usually serves as a good facility to check whether yourjob is working as expected. The admin section also offers facilities to troubleshoot any issues and control running jobs. The SDK host (sdkhost) corresponds to the daemon managing the scripts and their operations and thus avoiding any harm to the system. In terms of resources, it will limit CPU and memory for running scripts and also provide a pre-defined portion of the available flash storage. You may, however, extend it by external USB storage or (depending on your model) SD cards.

Files written to/tmp will be hold in the memory and will be cleared upon a script restart.. As your scripts operate in the sandbox, you will have no access to the system tools (such as ifconfig).

Administration

This page can be used to control the SDK host and apply the following settings:

Administrative status:

Specifies whether SDK scripts should run or not

Scheduling priority:

Specifies the process priority of the sdkhost, higher priorities will speed up scheduling your scripts, lower ones will have less impact to the host system

Maximum flash usage:

The maximum amount of Mbytes your scripts can write to the internal flash

Enable watchdog:

This option enables watchdog supervision for each script. If the script does not respond or is stopped with an exit code not equal null, the system is rebooted.

The status page informs you about the current SDK status. It provides an overview about any finished jobs, you can also stop a running job there and view the script output in the troubleshooting section where you will also find links for downloading the manuals and examples.

Job Management

This page can be used to set up scripts, triggers and jobs.

It is usually a good idea to create a trigger first which is made up by the following parameters:

Name:

A meaningful name to identify the trigger

Type:

The type of the trigger, either time-based or event-based

Condition:

Specifies the time condition for time-based triggers (e.g. hourly)

Timespec:

The time specification which, together with the condition, specifies the time(s) when the trigger should be pulled

Event:

The system event upon which the trigger should be pulled

You can now add your personal script to the system by applying the following parameters:

Name:

A meaningful name to identify the script

Description:

An optional script description

Arguments:

An optional set of arguments passed to the script (supports quoting)

Action:

You may either edit a script, upload it to the system or select one of the example scripts or an already uploaded script

You are ready to set up a job afterwards, it can be created by using the following parameters:

Name:

A meaningful name to identify the job

Trigger:

Specifies the trigger that should launch the job

Script:

Specifies the script to be executed

Arguments:

Defines arguments which can be passed to the script (supports quoting), they will precede the arguments you formerly may have assigned to the script itself

Testing
/* Check the current NTP server and set it to the IP address 192.168.0.2
and enable the NTP synchronisation */

printf ("The NTP server was previously using IP address: ");
printf (nb_config_get("network.ntp.server0"));
printf("\n\n");

nb_config_set("network.ntp.server0=192.168.0.2");

if (nb_config_get ("network.ntp.status") == "0"){
  printf ("and was not running.");
  printf("\n\n");
  nb_config_set ("network.ntp.status=1");
}
else {
  printf ("and was running.");
  printf("\n\n");
}

printf ("The NTP server is now running with IP address: ");
printf (nb_config_get("network.ntp.server0"));

The testing page offers an editor and an input field for optional arguments which can be used to perform test runs of your script or test dedicated portions of it. Please note that you might need to quote arguments as they will otherwise be separated by white-spaces.

/* arguments : schnick schnack "s c h n u c k" */

for (i = 0; i < argc ; i++) {
    printf (" argv %d: %s\n", i, argv [i]);
}

/* generates: 
* argv 0: /scripts/testrun
* argv 1: schnick
* argv 2: schnack
* argv 3: s c h n u c k
*/

In case of syntax errors, arena will usually print error messages as follows (indicating the line and position where the parsing error occurred):

/scripts/testrun:2:10:FATAL: parse error, unexpected $, expecting ’;’
[Note]Note

It is now possible to upload SDK scripts into the Testing menu via browsing the required SDK script and clicking on the “Run” button.

SDK Sample Application

As an introduction, you can step through a sample application, namely the SMS control script, which implements remote control over short messages and can be used to send a system status back to the sender. The source code is listed in the appendix.

Once enabled, you can send a message to the phone number associated with a SIM / modem. It generally requires a password to be given on the first line and a command on the second, such as:

admin01
status

We strongly recommend to use authentication in order to avoid any unintended access, however you may pass noauth as argument to disable it. You can then skip the first line containing the password. Having a closer look to the script, you will see that you will also be able to restrict the list of permitted senders. Please inspect the system log for troubleshooting any issues.

The following commands are supported:

status

An SMS with the following information will be returned

  • Signal strength

  • Mobile connection state (up/down)

  • current IP address of the mobile interface

  • current IP address of the VPN interface (if enabled)

connect

This will initiate a Dial-out connection over GSM/UMTS and the VPN connection (if enabled) and trigger sending an SMS with the following information:

  • current IP address of the PPP interface

  • current IP address of the VPN interface (if enabled)

disconnect

terminates all WAN connections (including VPN)

reboot

Initiates a system reboot

output 1 on

Switch digital output 1 on

output 1 off

Switch digital output 1 off

output 2 on

Switch digital output 2 on

output 2 off

Switch digital output 2 off

A response to the status command typically looks like:

System: MIDGE midge (0002A9FFC32E) 
WAN1: WWAN1 is up (10.204.8.3, Mobile1,
HSPA, -65 dBm, LAI 23003)
DIO: IN1=off, IN2=off, OUT1=off, OUT2=on

7.6.2. DHCP Server

This section can be used to individually configure a DHCP service for each LAN interface.

Operational mode:

The DHCP operational mode can be disabled or set to the “server” or “relay” mode. As a server, the unit answers to DHCP requests from hosts in the LAN directly. Aa a relay, the unit resends the requests to the configured DHCP server which handles them.

First lease address:

First address for DHCP clients

Last lease address:

Last address for DHCP clients

Lease duration:

Number of seconds (30-86400) how long a given lease will be valid until it has to be requested again

Persistent leases:

By checking this option, only static hosts will obtain the IP leases

DHCP options:

By default DHCP will hand out the interface address as the default gateway and DNS server address if not configured elsewhere. It is possible to specify different addresses here.

Static Hosts:

The option to add a static host configured with the IP address, MAC address and/or hostname.

7.6.3. DNS Server

The DNS server can be used to proxy DNS requests towards servers on the net which have for instance been negotiated during WAN link negotiation. By pointing DNS requests to the router, one can reduce outbound DNS traffic as it is caching already resolved names but it can be also used for serving fixed addresses for particular host names.

Administrative status:

Enabled or disabled

Domain name

The domain name used for short name lookups.

Primary name server

The primary default name server which will be used instead of negotiated name servers.

Secondary name server

The secondary default name server which will be used instead of negotiated name servers.

You may further configure static hosts for serving fixed IP addresses for various hostnames. Please remember to point local hosts to the router’s address for resolving them.

7.6.4. NTP Server

This section can be used to individually configure the Network Time Protocol (NTP) server function.

Administrative status:

Enabled or disabled

Poll interval:

Defines the polling interval (64-4096 seconds) for synchronizing the time with the master clock servers

Allowed hosts:

Defines the IP address range which is allowed to poll the NTP server

[Note]Note

See the description of how to set the correct router time in the section called “Time & Region”.

7.6.5. Dynamic DNS

Dynamic DNS client on this box is generally compatible with various DynDNS services on the Internet running by means of definitions by the DynDNS organization (see www.dyndns.com for server implementations).

Administrative status:

Enabled or disabled

Dynamic address:

Specifies whether the address is derived from the hotlink, outgoing interface address or via an external service. Usually, the hotlink option is used.

Hostname:

The host-name provided by your DynDNS service (e.g. mybox.dyndns.org)

Username:

The user-name used for authenticating at the service

Password:

The password used for authentication

Protocol

The protocol used for authentication (HTTP, HTTPS).

Server address

The address of the server which shall be updated.

Server port

The port of the server which shall be updated.

TSIG key name

The name of the TSIG key which is allowed to perform updates.

TSIG key

The TSIG key encoded in base64.

Please note that your RACOM router can operate as DynDNS service as well, provided that you hold a valid SERVER license and have your hosts pointed to the DNS service of the router.

7.6.6. E-mail client

The E-Mail client can be used to send notifications to a particular E-Mail address upon certain events or by SDK scripts.

Administrative status:

E-mail client administrative status – enabled or disabled

From address:

Sender e-mail address

Server address:

SMTP server address

Server port:

SMTP server port (typically 25)

Authentication:

Choose the required authentication method to authenticate against the SMTP server

Encryption:

The optional encryption for the e-mail messaging (none or TLS)

Username:

User name for authentication

Password:

Password for authentication

After configuring E-mail successfully, you can also test e-mail messages.

7.6.7. Events

By using the event manager you can notify remote systems about system events. A notification can be sent using E-Mail, SMS or SNMP traps.

Events

E-Mail address

The E-Mail address to which the notification shall be sent (E-Mail client must be enabled)

Phone number

The phone number to which the notification shall be sent (SMS service must be enabled)

SNMP host

The SNMP host or address to which the trap shall be sent

SNMP port

The port of the remote SNMP service

Username

The username for accessing the remote SNMP service

Password

The password for accessing the remote SNMP service

Authentication

The authentication algorithm for accessing the remote SNMP service (MD5 or SHA)

Encryption

The encryption algorithm for accessing the remote SNMP service (DES or SHA)

Engine ID

The engine ID of the remote SNMP service The messages will contain a description provided by you and a short system information.

The default texts for a specific Event are as follows:

CategoryEvent (ID)Description
CALLcall-incoming (701)A GSM call is coming in
 call-outgoing (702)Outgoing voice call is being established
DDNSddns-update-failed (802)Dynamic DNS update failed
 ddns-update-succeeded (801)Dynamic DNS update succeeded
DIALINdialin-down (409)Dial-In connection went down
 dialin-up (408)Dial-In connection came up
DIOdio-in1-off (202)DIO IN1 turned off
 dio-in1-on (201)DIO IN1 turned on
 dio-in2-off (204)DIO IN2 turned off
 dio-in2-on (203)DIO IN2 turned on
 dio-out1-off (206)DIO OUT1 turned off
 dio-out1-on (205)DIO OUT1 turned on
 dio-out2-off (208)DIO OUT2 turned off
 dio-out2-on (207)DIO OUT2 turned on
GPSgps-down (302)GPS signal is not available
 gps-up (301)GPS signal is available
GREgre-down (413)GRE connection went down
 gre-up (412)GRE connection came up
IPSECipsec-down (404)IPsec connection went down
 ipsec-up (403)IPsec connection came up
MOBILEIPmobileip-down (411)Mobile IP connection went down
 mobileip-up (410)Mobile IP connection came up
OPENVPNopenvpn-down (402)OpenVPN connection went down
 openvpn-up (401)OpenVPN connection came up
PPTPpptp-down (407)PPTP connection went down
 pptp-up (406)PPTP connection came up
REDUNDANCYredundancy-backupSystem is now backup router
 redundancy-masterSystem is now master router
SDKsdk-startup (507)SDK has been started
SMSsms-notsent (602)SMS has not been sent
 sms-received (603)SMS has been received
 sms-report-received (604)SMS report has been received
 sms-sent (601)SMS has been sent
SYSTEMsystem-login-failed (501)User login failed
 system-login-succeeded (502)User login succeeded
 system-logout (503)User logged out
 system-rebooting (504)System reboot has been triggered
 system-startup (505)System has been started
 system-time-updated (508)System time has been updated
TESTtest (506)test event
USBusb-eth-added (903)USB Ethernet device has been added
 usb-eth-removed (904)USB Ethernet device has been removed
 usb-serial-added (905)USB serial device has been added
 usb-serial-removed (906)USB serial device has been removed
 usb-storage-added (901)USB storage device has been added
 usb-storage-removed (902)USB storage device has been removed
WANwan-down (101)WAN link went down
 wan-up (102)WAN link came up

7.6.8. SMS

This page lets you turn on the SMS event notification service and enable remote control via SMS.

Administration

On RACOM routers it is possible to receive or send short messages (SMS) over each mounted modem (depending on the assembly options). Messages are received by querying the SIM card over a modem, so prior to that, the required assignment of a SIM card to a modem needs to be specified on the SIMs page.

Please bear in mind, in case you are running multiple WWAN interfaces sharing the same SIM, that the system may switch SIMs during operation which will also result in different settings for SMS communication.

Sending messages heavily depends on the registration state of the modem and whether the provided SMS Center service works and may fail. You may use the sms-report-received event to figure out whether a message has been successfully sent.

Received messages are pulled from the SIMs and temporarily stored on the router but get cleared after a system reboot. Please consider to consult an SDK script in case you want to process or copy them.

Sending messages heavily depends on the registration state of the modem and whether the provided SMS Center service works and may fail. You may use the sms-report-received event to figure out whether a message has been successfully sent.

Please do not forget that modems might register roaming to foreign networks where other fees may apply. You can manually assign a fixed network (by LAI) in the SIMs section.

We identify SIMs based on their IMEI number and track their statistics in a non-volatile manner.

The relevant page can be used to enable the SMS service and specify on which modem should operate.

Administrative status:

Enable or disable SMS notifications and control

Request delivery report:

Enable or disable receiving the confirmation whether SMS was successfully received or not. This can be then read in the SMS Status menu.

Routing & Filtering

By using SMS routing you can specify outbound rules which will be applied whenever messages are sent. You can forward them to an enabled modem. For a particular number, you can for instance enforce messages be sent over a dedicated SIM.

Phone numbers can also be specified by regular expressions, here are some examples:

+12345678   Specifies a fixed number
+1*         Specifies any numbers starting with +1
+1*9        Specifies any numbers starting with +1 and ending with 9
+[12]*      Specifies any numbers starting with either +1 or 2

Please note that numbers have to be entered in international format including a valid prefix. On the other hand, you can also define rules to drop outgoing messages, for instance, when you want to avoid using any expensive service or international numbers.

Both types of rules form a list will be processed in order, forwarding outgoing messages over the specified modem or dropping them. Messages which are not matching any of the rules below will be dispatched to the first available modem.

Filtering serves a concept of firewalling incoming messages, thus either dropping or allowing them on a per-modem basis. The created rules are processed in order and in case of matches will either drop or forward the incoming message before entering the system. All non-matching messages will be allowed.

Status

The status page can be used to the current modem status and get information about any sent or received messages. There is a small SMS inbox reader which can be used to view or delete the messages. Please note that the inbox will be cleared each midnight in case it exceeds 512 kbytes of flash usage.

Testing

This page can be used to test whether SMS sending in general or filtering/routing rules works. The maximum length per message part is limited to 160 characters, we also suggest to exclusively use characters which are supported by the GSM 7-bit alphabet.

7.6.9. SSH/Telnet Server

Apart from the Web Manager, the SSH and Telnet services can be used to log into the system. Valid users include root and admin as well as additional users as they can be created in the User Accounts section. Please note, that a regular system shell will only be provided for the root user, the CLI will be launched for any other user whereas normal users will only be able to view status values, the admin user will obtain privileges to modify the system.

Please note that these services will be accessible from the WAN interface also. In doubt, please consider to disable or restrict access to them by applying applicable firewall rules.

The following parameters can be applied to the Telnet service:

Administrative status:

Whether the Telnet service is enabled or disabled

Server port:

The TCP port of the service (usually 23)

The following parameters can be applied to the SSH service:

Administrative status:

Whether the SSH service is enabled or disabled

Server port:

The TCP port of the service (usually 22)

Disable admin login:

If checked, access via SSH for admin and root users will be blocked. Other users may have access as usual, but with restricted privileges.

Disable password-based login:

By turning on this option, all users will have to authenticate by SSH keys which can be uploaded to the router.

[Note]Note

You can manually upload the authorized keys.

7.6.10. SNMP Agent

M!DGE/MG102i is equipped with an SNMP daemon, supporting basic MIB tables (such as ifTable), plus additional enterprise MIBs to manage multiple systems. M!DGE/MG102i OID starts with 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10 prefix. The corresponding VENDOR MIB can be downloaded from the router.

ParameterSupported MIBs
.1.3.6.1.2.1MIB-II (RFC1213), SNMPv2-MIB (RFC3418)
.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.1IF-MIB (RFC2863)
.1.3.6.1.2.1.4IP-MIB (RFC1213)
.1.3.6.1.2.1.10.131TUNNEL-MIB (RFC4087)
.1.3.6.1.2.25HOST-RESOURCES-MIB (RFC2790)
.1.3.6.1.6.3.10SNMP-FRAMEWORK-MIB
.1.3.6.1.6.3.11SNMPv2-SMI (RFC2578)
.1.0.8802.1.1.2LLDP-MIB
.1.0.8802.1.1.2.1.5.4795LLDP-EXT-MED-MIB
.1.3.6.1.4.1.33555VENDOR-MIB

The VENDOR-MIB tables offer some additional information over the system and its WWAN, GNSS and WLAN interfaces. They can be accessed over the following OIDs:

ParameterVendor MIB OID Assignment
NBAdminTable.1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40
NBWwanTable.1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.50
NBGnssTable.1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.51
NBDioTable.1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.53
NBWlanTable.1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.60
NBWanTable.1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.22
[Note]Note

GNSS and WLAN are accessible only in MG102i units.

M!DGE/MG102i extensions contain support for:

  • Rebooting the device

  • Updating to a new system software via FTP/TFTP/HTTP

  • Updating to a new system configuration via FTP/TFTP/HTTP

  • Getting WWAN/GNSS/WLAN/DIO information

[Note]Note

Attention must be paid to the fact that SNMP passwords have to be more than 8 characters long. Shorter passwords will be doubled for SNMP, e.g. ‘admin01’ becomes ‘admin01admin01’.

SNMP extensions can be read and triggered as follows:

  • To get system software version:
    snmpget -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.1.0

  • To get a kernel version:
    snmpget -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.2.0

  • To get a serial number:
    snmpget -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.3.0

  • To restart the device:
    snmpset -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.10.0 i 1

  • To run a configuration update:
    snmpset -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.11.0 s “http://server/directory

[Note]Note

config Update expects a zip-file named <serial-number>.zip in the specified directory which contains at least a “user-config.zip”.
Supported protocols are TFTP, HTTP(s) and FTP.
Specifying a username/password or port is not yet supported.

  • get configuration update status:
    snmpget -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.12.0
    The return value can be one of: (1) succeeded, (2) failed, (3) inprogress, (4) notstarted.

  • run software update:
    snmpset -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.13.0 s “http://server/directory”

  • get software update status:
    snmpget -v 3 -u admin -n “” -l authNoPriv -a MD5 -x DES -A admin01admin01 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.33555.10.40.14.0
    Return value can be either of: (1) succeeded, (2) failed, (3) inprogress, (4) notstarted.

SNMP Configuration

Administrative status:

Enable or disable the SNMP agent

Operation mode:

Specifies if agent should run in compatibilty mode or for SNMPv3 only

Contact:

System maintainer or other contact information

Location:

Device location

Listening port

SNMP agent port

Once the SNMP agent is enabled, SNMP traps can be generated using SDK scripts or can be triggered by various Events (see the SYSTEM → Events menu).

SNMP Authentication

When running in SNMPv3, it is possible to configure the following authentication settings:

Authentication:

Defines the authentication (MD5 or SHA)

Encryption:

Defines the privacy protocols to use (DES or AES)

In general, the admin user can read and write any values. Read access will be granted to any other system users.

There is no authentication/encryption in SNMPv1/v2c and should not be used to set any values. However, it is possible to define its communities and authoritive host which will be granted administrative access.

Read community:

Defines the community name for read access

Admin community:

Defines the community name for admin access

Allowed host:

Defines the host which is allowed for admin access

[Note]Note

The SNMP daemon is also listening on WAN interfaces and it is therefore suggested to restrict the access via the firewall.

7.6.11. Web Server

This page can be used to configure different ports for accessing the Web Manager via HTTP/HTTPS. We strongly recommend to use HTTPS when accessing the web service via a WAN interface as the communication will be encrypted and thus avoids any misuse of the system.

In order to enable HTTPS you would need to generate or upload a server certificate in the section SYSTEM-Keys and Certificates.

Administrative status:

Enable or disable the Web server

HTTP port:

Web server port for HTTP connections

HTTPS port:

Web server port for HTTPS connections

HTTPS certificate:

Either information that the certificate is ‘installed’ or a link to create such certificate.

Enable CLI-PHP:

Enable CLI-PHP service (see Section 8.16, “CLI–PHP”)

7.6.12. Redundancy

This section can be used to set up a redundant pair of M!DGE/MG102is (or other systems) by running the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) among them. A typical VRRP scenario defines the first host playing the master and another the backup device, they both define a virtual gateway IP address which will be distributed by gratuitous ARP messages for updating the ARP cache of all LAN hosts and thus redirecting the packets accordingly.

A takeover will happen within approximately 3 seconds as soon as the partner is no longer reachable (checked via multicast packets). This may happen when one device is rebooting or the Ethernet link went down. Same applies when the WAN link goes down.

In case DHCP has been activated, please keep in mind that you will need to reconfigure the DHCP gateway address offered by the server and let them point to the virtual gateway address. In order to avoid conflicts you may turn off DHCP on the backup device or even better, split the DHCP lease range in order to prevent any lease duplication.

[Note]Note

M!DGE/MG102i assigns a priority of 100 to the master and 1 to the backup router. Please adapt the priority of your third-party device appropriately.

Administrative status:

Enable or disable Redundancy

Role:

Role of this system (either master or backup)

VID:

The Virtual Router ID (you can theoretically run multiple instances)

Interface:

Interface on which VRRP should be performed

Virtual gateway address:

Virtual gateway address formed by the participating hosts

7.6.13. Modbus TCP

While in UHF RipEX radios, using Modbus TCP transparently was not a preferred option, in the cellular routers, on contrary, it is a recommended solution. In such a case that all connected devices use Modbus TCP, there is no need to use and configure this feature. Just send data transparently as TCP over the cellular network.

But if you combine Modbus TCP and Modbus RTU within one network, you should use our Modbus TCP solution. You do not need any external Modbus TCP – Modbus RTU converter, the functionality is implemented in the M!DGE/MG102i firmware.

The Modbus TCP daemon listens for the local TCP connection on the TCP port 502 by default. After the connection is established, the communication can be initiated. Any incoming Modbus TCP datagram is investigated and based on the Modbus TCP “Unit ID” Byte and Address translation Table/mask rules, is forwarded as UDP to the final destination (by default the UDP port is 8902), e.g. another M!DGE/MG102i unit with Modbus RTU device connected over the RS232 port.

[Note]Note

This behaviour comes from the RipEX functionality where UDP is a preferred transport solution. In case of celullar networks, TCP might be a better solution. When implementing this solution into your network, you might configure Modbus TCP on the remote M!DGE/MG102i (not a unit locally connected via Ethernet) causing the TCP session to be between a local device and remote M!DGE/MG102i instead of UDP. The final conversion from TCP to UDP so the Protocol server listening on the UDP port 8882 by default is done at the remote unit afterwards. In such a case, make a Translation rule which sends all received packets to the localhost.

[Important]Important

In some Modbus TCP implementations, Unit ID field within the datagram is always set to “FF”. In such a case, you can use the “Replace PLC address” option so that the Unit ID is replaced by some Modbus RTU address. Thanks to this parameter, regular Mask/Table address translation can be used. Consider carefully where you put the corresponding parameter (local or remote M!DGE/MG102i and if placed in Modbus TCP or Modbus RTU Protocol server menu – it can be set at both places, but not simultaneously).

See the Application note for more details and examples.

Administrative status

Enable or disable the feature.

My TCP Port

The TCP port for a session with local Modbus TCP Master. It can also be a remote Modbus TCP Master resulting in a TCP session over the cellular network instead of UDP.

TCP inactivity [s]

The TCP inactivity timeout in seconds.

Transport protocol

The transport protocol used, must be set to UDP only.

Port

The port number for a transport protocol (8902 by default).

Broadcast

The broadcast is always disabled in cellular networks.

Replace PLC address

If set, manually configure replacing the current PLC with a configured Modbus RTU address. Modbus TCP consists of the Unit ID field which can be changed manually by this parameter.

Address translation

See Protocol Server article.

7.7. SYSTEM

7.7.1. System

Settings

Local host name:

The local system hostname

Application area:

The desired application area which influences the system behaviour such as registration timeouts when operating in the mobile environment.

Reboot delay:

The number of seconds to wait before the reboot is initiated (might be needed for some system-rebooting events).

Syslog

Storage

The storage device on which logfiles shall be stored.

Max. filesize

The maximum size of the logfiles (in kB) until they will get rotated.

Redirect address

Specifies an IP address to which log messages should be redirected to. A tiny system log server for Windows is included in TFTP32 which can be provided if requested.

In general, the unit comes with an internal flash device which can be used to store data or you can use the external USB disk.

Flash root

The root partition of the internal flash.

USB disk

A storage disk connected to the external USB port.

LEDs

LED Settings:

You can configure the behaviour of the status LEDs on the front panel of your device. They are usually divided into two banks – left (M!DGE) or upper (MG102i) for the digital IO port status or right (M!DGE) or lower (MG102i) for the connection status indication. You may configure toggle mode, so that the LEDs periodically show both bank states. See the LEDs description in Section 4.3, “Indication LEDs”.

Bootloader

Password

The password used to unlock the bootloader. If empty, the admin password will be used.

Time & Region

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. M!DGE/MG102i can synchronize its system time with an NTP server. If enabled, time synchronisation is usually triggered after a WAN link has come up but before starting any VPN connections. Further time synchronisations are scheduled in the background every 60 minutes.

Current system time:

The current system time which can be synchronized agains a valid NTP server or set manually. If manually set, the time is lost after the reboot.

NTP server 1:

The primary NTP server IP address or hostname

NTP server 2 (optional):

The optional secondary NTP server IP address or hostname

Ping check

Uses an ICMP ping to check whether NTP servers are available when running initial time update

Time zone:

Time zone based on your geographical location

Daylight saving changes:

This option can be used to reflect daylight saving changes (e.g. switching from summer to standard time) depending on the selected time zone.

Sync will perform the time synchronisation immediatelly.

[Note]Note

The System information menu has been moved into the HOME menu (since firmware 3.7.x).

Reboot

This menu can be used to reboot the system. All WAN links will be interrupted.

7.7.2. Authentication

Authentication

This page offers a simple shortcut to allow only secure connections (SSH, HTTPS) for managing the router. If the option “Secure authentication preferred” is set, users will be redirected to HTTPS but can still login via HTTP/telnet.

User Accounts

This page lets you manage the user accounts on the device.

The standard admin user is a built-in power user that has permission to access the Web Manager and other administrative services and is used by several services as the default user. Keep in mind that the admin password will be also applied to the root user which is able to enter a system shell. Any other user represents a user with lower privileges, for instance it has only permission to view the status page or retrieve status values when using the CLI.

Username:

Define a user name

Description:

The user description

Role

Either admin or user.

Old password

Enter the current password.

New password

Enter a new password.

Confirm new password

Enter a new password again to confirm correctness.

[Note]Note

When adding additional admin users you are required to provide the password of the default administrator.

Remote Authentication

A remote RADIUS server can be used to authenticate users. This applies for the Web Manager and other services supporting and incorporating remote authentication.

Administrative status:

Enable or disable remote authentication

Server address:

RADIUS server address

Secret:

Secret used to authenticate against the RADIUS server

Authentication port:

Port used for authentication

Accounting port:

Port used for accounting messages

Use for login:

This option enables remotely-defined users to access the Web Manager

7.7.3. Software Update

Manual Software Update

This menu can be used to run a manual software update.

Update operation:

The update operation method being used. You can upload the image or download it from the given URL

URL:

You can upload the image or download it from the given URL.

When issuing a software update, the current configuration (including files like keys/certificates) will be backuped. Any other modifications to the filesystem will be erased. The configuration is generally backward-compatible. We also apply forward compatibility when downgrading to a previous software within the same release line (e.g. 3.6.40.X), which is accomplished by sorting out unknown configuration directives which actually may lead to loss of settings and features. Therefore, it’s always a good idea to keep a copy of the working configuration. Generally, we do not recommend downgrading the software.

[Important]Important

In case you perform a major downgrade to a previous release line (e.g. 3.6.40.X to 3.5.40.X), the configuration will be set to factory defaults. Also keep in mind, that some hardware features may not work (e.g. if not implemented in that version). In doubt, please consult our support team.

A software image can be either uploaded via the Web Manager or retrieved from a specific URL. It will be unpacked and deployed to a spare partition which gets activated if the update completed successfully. The whole procedure is accompanied by all green LEDs flashing up, the subsequent system reboot gets denoted by a slowly blinking Status LED. The backuped configuration will be applied at bootup and the Status LED will blink faster during this operation. Depending on your configuration, this may take a while.

[Important]Important

The upgrade from 3.6.41.x and newer firmwares is fully compatible. If you upgrade from older releases, you have to reset the unit into the factory settings (only if you need to use the serial interface Protocol server functionality). The previously saved configuration can be uploaded to the station manually afterwards.

Automatic Software Update

Status:

Enable/disable automatic software update

Time of day:

Every day at this time M!DGE/MG102i will do a check for updates

URL:

The server URL where the software update package should be downloaded from. Supported protocols are TFTP, HTTP(s), and FTP

Firmware Update

This menu can be used to perform a firmware update of a specific module.

Update operation:

The update operation method being used. You can upload a firmware package or download the files from a specifc URL.

URL:

The server URL where the firmware files should be downloaded from. Supported protocols are TFTP, HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP (protocol://server/path/file).

Software Profiles

In every router you have two software profiles. One is active (currently used) and one is inactive. You can easily switch between these profiles any time.

It can be for example useful when there is some issue with the newest firmware and you need to restore the previous firmware version easily. Or you can just test some new features in the newest firmware and then get back to the previous one.

7.7.4. Configuration

Configuration via the Web Manager becomes tedious for large volumes of devices. M!DGE/MG102i therefore offers automatic and manual file-based configuration to automate things. Once you have successfully set up the system you can back up the configuration and restore the system with it afterwards. You can either upload a single configuration file (.cfg) or a complete package (.zip) containing the configuration file and a packed version of other essential files (such as certificates).

File Configuration

This section can be used to download the currently running system configuration (including essential files such as certificates).

The current configuration file is updated after every change and the time of this update is displayed along with a configuration version and a security hash. The current configuration can be updated manually by pressing the Apply button.

In order to restore a particular configuration you can upload a configuration previously downloaded or update configuration from the provided URL link.

You can choose between missing configuration directives stay the same as in the currently running configuration.

Automatic Updates

Status:

Enable/disable automatic configuration update

Time of day:

Time of day when the system will check for updates

URL:

The server URL where the configuration file should be retrieved from (supported protocols are HTTP(s), TFTP, FTP)

Factory Configuration

This menu can be used to reset the device to factory defaults. Your current configuration will be lost.

This procedure can also be initiated by pressing and holding the Reset button for at least 10 seconds. A successfully initiated factory reset can be noticed by all LEDs being turned on.

Factory reset will set the IP address of the first Ethernet interface back to 192.168.1.1. You will be able to communicate again with the device using the default network parameters.

You may store the currently running configuration as factory defaults which will reside active even when a factory reset has been initiated (e.g. by your service staff). Please ensure that this corresponds to a working configuration. A real factory reset to the default settings can be achieved by restoring the original factory configuration and initiating the factory reset again.

[Important]Important

If you store the currently running configuration as the factory defaults, have in mind that the password is also stored within this configuration.

7.7.5. Troubleshooting

Network Debugging

Various tools reside on this page for further analysis of potential configuration issues. The ping utility can be used to verify the remote host reachability.

Define the remote host (IP address or hostname), number of packets and the packet size.

The traceroute utility can be used to print the route to a remote host.

Define the target host (IP or hostname), Time-To-Live (TTL – number of hops on the resulting route) and the timeout in seconds (max. time to wait for the final respond).

The tcpdump utility generates a network capture (PCAP) of an interface which can be later analyzed with Wireshark.

Several basic protocols can be excluded from the resulting PCAP file (HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet and SSH).

[Note]Note

The default number of received packets is set to 1000. For downloading the file, just click on the Download button. The captured file can be also downloaded from the /tmp/ directory via the appropriate file manager.

The darkstat utility can be used to visualize your current network connections and traffic on a particular interface.

After the utility initialization, it can be viewed in a separate window. Displaying graphs and individual host statistics are supported.

System Debugging

Log files can be viewed, downloaded and reset here. Please study them carefully in case of any issues.

Default debugging levels for individual daemons are as follows:

  • configd – 4

  • watchdog – 4

  • swupdate – 5

  • wwan-managerc – 5

  • led-manager – 5

  • event-manager – 5

  • link-manager – 5

  • wwanmd – 5

  • surveyor – 5

  • mobile-node – 4

  • home-agent – 4

  • voiced – 4

  • smsd – 5

  • sdkhost – 6

  • qmid – 4

  • ser2net – 4

  • rrsp2 – 1

  • rrsp21 – 1

  • qosd – 0

You can change the values to suit your needs and you can reset the values into their defaults by pressing the “Reset” button afterwards.

Tech Support

You can generate and download a tech support file here.

We strongly recommend providing this file when getting in touch with our support team, either by e-mail or via our online support form, as it would significantly speed up the process of analyzing and resolving your problem.

[Note]Note

For both direct E-mail and Online support form a connection to the Internet has to be available.

You can encrypt the Techsupport file in order to secure the file against reading it without knowing the security key for decrypting the file. It is more secure way to send the techsupport file via nonsecure e-mail. The decrypting key is known by our support team only and cannot be provided to anybody. Another option is to exclude secrets – passwords, credentials… But they are not readable in a plain text anyway.

7.7.6. Keys & Certificates

The key and certificate page lets you generate required files for securing your services (such as the HTTPS/WebServer and SSH server). Keep in mind that you will need to create keys and certificates for VPN or WLAN in case of certificate based authentication. You can also revoke and invalidate certificates again (for instance if they have been compromised or lost).

The entry pages shows an overview about installed keys and certificates. The following sections may appear:

Root CA:

The root Certificate Authority (CA) which issues certificates, its key can be used to certify it at trusted third party on other systems.

Web Server:

The certificates for the Web server required for running HTTP over SSL (HTTPS).

SSH Server:

The DSS/DSA keys for the SSH server.

SSH Authorization

The keys used for SSH authorization.

OpenVPN:

Server or client keys and certificates for running OpenVPN tunnels.

IPsec:

Server or client keys and certificates for running IPsec tunnels.

WLAN:

Keys and certificates for implementing certificate-based WLAN authentication (e.g. WPA-EAP-TLS).

Authorities:

Other certificate authorities which we trust when establishing SSL client connections.

For each certificate section it is possible to perform the following operations:

generate locally:

Generate key and certificate locally on M!DGE/MG102i

upload files:

Key and certificate will be uploaded. We support files in PKCS12, PKCS7, PEM/DER format as well as RSA/DSS keys in OpenSSH or Dropbear format.

enroll via SCEP:

Enroll key and certificate via SCEP

download certificate:

Download key and certificate in ZIP format (files will be encoded in PEM format)

create signing request:

Generate key locally and create a signing request to retrieve a certificate signed by another authority

erase certificate:

Erase all keys and certificates associated with this section

Configuration

This page provides some general configuration options which will be applied when operating with keys and certificates. If keys, certificates and signing requests are generated locally, the following settings will be taken into account:

Organization (O):

The certificate owner’s organization

Department (OU):

The name of the organizational unit to which the certificate issuer belongs

Location (L):

The certificate owner’s location

State (ST):

The certificate owner’s state

Country (C):

The certificate owner’s country (usually a TLD abbreviation)

Common Name (CN)

The certificate owner’s common name, mainly used to identify a host

E-Mail

The certificate owner’s email address

Expiry period

The number of days a certificate will be valid from now on

Key size

The length of the private key in bits

DH primes

The number of bits for custom Diffie-Hellman primes

Signature

The signature algorithm when signing certificates

Passphrase

The passphrase for accessing/opening a private key

Please be aware of the fact, that the local random number generator (RNG) provides pretty good randomness for most applications. If stronger cryptography is mandatory, we suggest to create the keys at an external RNG device or manage all certificates completely on a remote certification server. Nevertheless, using a local certificate authority can issue and manage all required certificates and also run a certificate revokation list (CRL).

When importing keys, the certificate and key file can be uploaded individually encoded in PEM/DER or PKCS7 format. All files (CA certificate, certificate and private key) can also be uploaded in one stroke by using the container format PKCS12. RSA/DSS keys can be converted from OpenSSH or Dropbear formats. It is possible to specify the passphrase for opening the private key. Please note that the system will generally apply the system-wide certificate passphrase on a key when installing the certificate. Thus, changing the general passphrase will result in all local keys getting equipped with the new one.

SCEP Configuration

If certificates are getting enrolled by using the Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) the following settings can be configured:

SCEP status:

Specifies whether SCEP is enabled or not.

URL:

The SCEP URL, usually in the form http://<host>/<path>/pkiclient.exe.

CA fingerprint:

The fingerprint of the certificate used to identify the remote authority. If left empty, any CA will be trusted.

Fingerprint algorithm:

The fingerprint algorithm for identifying the CA (MD5 or SHA1).

Poll interval:

The polling interval in seconds for a certificate request.

Request timeout:

The max. polling time in seconds for a certificate request.

ID type

It can be IP, Email or DNS.

Password

The password for the scep server.

When enrolling certificates, the CA certificate will be initially fetched from the specified SCEP URL using the getca operation. It will be shown on the configuration page and it has to be verified that it belongs to the correct authority. Otherwise, the CA must be rejected. This part is essential when using SCEP as it builds up the chain of trust. If a certificate enrollment request times out, it is possible to re-trigger the interrupted enrollment request and it will be resumed using the previously generated key. In case a request has been rejected, you are required to erase the certificate first and then start the enrollment process all over again.

Authorities

For SSL client connections (as used by SDK functions or when downloading configuration/software images) you might upload a list of CA certificates which are considered trusted. To obtain the CA certificate from a particular site with Mozilla Firefox, the following steps will be required:

  • Point the browser to the relevant HTTPS website

  • Click the padlock in the address bar

  • Click the More Information and the View Certificate button

  • Select the Details tab and press the Export button

  • Choose a path for the file (e.g. website.pem)

7.7.7. Licensing

This menu allows you to view and update the license status of your system. Note that some features are disabled if no valid license is provided.

Availability means that the licence can be applied to the current hardware. The valid license is active if the status “licensed” is displayed in the respective line.

7.7.8. Legal Notice

A dedicated GUI page under SYSTEM is pointing out that M!DGE/MG102i contains in part open source software that may be licensed under GPL, LGPL or other open source licenses. It further provides detailed information for each package, including the relevant license text and the corresponding source URL. The user is now obliged to accept our end user license agreement during the initial setup of the router. We remind you that the source code of any package can be obtained by contacting our technical support at support@racom.eu.

7.8. LOGOUT

Log out from Web Manager.