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21. Tests

All diagnostic tests can be controlled by three CU services – test start, test report and test stop.

These services are activated by commands (s)tart r(e)port sto(p), which are present in the submenu of each test. The remaining menu items serve for editing of test parameters.

Anytime a test is successfully started, it has been started with parameters sent from Setr.exe together with the start command. Consequently, the only way how to change a parameter of a running test is to stop it, set the parameter and start the test again.


This enables complex testing of a path in the MORSE network.

From MORSE main menu type i t t Enter

Statistic (t)est:RX/TX
(N):1   (d):690F8606h
random data (l)ength:0byte
(r)epeat period:1000ms + (j)itter:200ms
Qualit(y) time constant:10s
RSS (m)easure:ON
(g)o on:OFF
(s)tart r(e)port sto(p)

Items of statistic test menu:

(t)est :RX/TX

— mode of test

  • (1) RX — receiving path only

  • (2) TX — transmitting path only

  • (3) RX/TX — full statistic test of both path directions

Mode selection influences the rest of the menu, as items not relevant to the selected mode are not available for editing.

(N) :1

— The number of the node where the test will run. The node is from the CU where the test start service is activated. Simultaneously, the node selected is the originating node of the tested path.


It is possible to start a test on a node different from the one to which the Setr.exe is connected. Whenever we are connected to a node from some CU, we can control (using (s)tart, r(e)port and sto(p) commands) any test on the remaining nodes from that CU.

(d): 69601000h

— Address of Node, which is at the opposite end of the path to be tested.


— Only for RX mode. Address of the counterpart node (which has to be in the TX mode) transmitting test packets.

d(a)ta: abcdefg

— Arbitrary data, which are then added to every test packet, can be set here.

type a Enter

   /0 /1 /2 /3 /4 /5 /6 /7 /8 /9 /A /B /C /D /E /F  ASCII:
   61 62 63 64 65 66 67                             abcdefg
   Data: (a) ASCII (h)ex (r)andom (c)lear

— type ASCII characters to fill in the data


— type hexadecimal characters to fill in the data


— choose random data length and random data will be generated


— clears data set


— adds check sum to the transmitted data, according to RDS protocol rules, for production purposes

random data (l)ength :0byte

— random data will be added to every test packet (a new set of random data for every packet)

(r)epeat period: 1000ms

— period of test packet transmitting (r)

(j)itter: 200ms

— a random part is added to every period 0(j)

qualit(y) time constant: 10 s

— time constant used in calculations of immediate path quality (the packets coming in last 10 second are counted with bigger emphasis)

RSS (m)easure: ON

— RSS and DQ value is added to the test packet on every RF link on the path

sec(u)rity: OFF

— test packets are sent in non-secured mode (no ACK and no retransmissions on RF links)

(g)o on:

  • OFF – test packets are transmitted regularly with the (r)epeat period configured

  • ON – test packets are transmitted immediately after receiving the response for the previous transmission, or after the (r)epeat period expires


— starts the test


— gets report from the running test


— gets report and stops the running test

type s Enter

Test on Node 1 is running

Type p Enter

STest report  STOP!!!  RX_TX
source 690F8100  dest 690F8606  Node 1  security OFF
current sec:      44318       test sec: 35204
packets send:     35135       received: 34906
bytes per packet: 112         period:   1002.0 ms

PINGS   TX: 35135 RX: 34906 Lost: 229
min:    174    max:   320    aver:    201  qual:    235 ms
 160:  16726    192:  16913   224:    286   256:    981

       Path         DQ    RSS   HOM          Path         DQ    RSS  HOM
(690F8100-690F0300) 29.3  62.6  0.9   (690F0300-690F8606) 26.9  95.2 0.7
(690F8606-690F0300) 28.4  92.1  0.9   (690F0300-690F8100) 29.9  65.3 0.8

PER: 1:153.4    BER:      7.3e-06
breaks count: (length: count)
    1:   221       2:     4      8:     1
longest breaks: (units: sec)
    8: 20131      2:  2735      2: 19115      2: 34065
    2: 35062      1:   400      1:   487      1:   526
    1:   750      1:  1197      1:  1400      1:  1407

Meaning of items of statistic test report:


— test mode

source 690F8100

— originating Node address

dest 690F8606

— destination Node address

Node 1

— number of the originating Node within the source CU

security OFF

— security setting (see above)

current sec:44318

— time in seconds after the last cold start of source CU

test sec:35204

— duration of the test

packets send:35135

— number of packets transmitted


— number of packets received

bytes per packet:112

— the average length of received packet

period :1002.0 ms

— the average period


— part of the test report dealing with response time statistic

TX: 35135

— number of transmitted packets

RX: 34906

— number of received packets

Lost: 229

— number of lost packets

min: 174

— the shortest response time

max: 320

— the longest response time

aver: 201

— the average response time

qual: 235

— path quality is a number calculated from response times, using a special algorithm with parameter Qualit(y) time constant

160: 16726 192:

— there were 16726 pings between 160 and 192 ms etc. – this shows the distribution of response times

RSS and DQ values for all RF links included in the tested path:

Path (690F8100-690F0300)

— RF link (from – to)

DQ 29.3

Data Quality – average

RSS 62.6

Received Signal Strength – average

HOM 0.9

RSS homogenity value (calculated in a similar way to standard deviation)

PER :1:153.4

Packet Error Ratio (the probability that a packet is lost or corrupted)

BER :7.3e-06

Bit Error Ratio (the probability that any received bit differs from that originally transmitted, the value is calculated from PER)

Next list displays the distribution of break lengths, where a break is understood to be a succession of lost packets; consequently break length is the length of the break measured in packets (the number of successive lost packets).

breaks count: (length: count)
  • break – packet loss

  • length – break length measured in packets (number of consecutive lost packets)

  • count – number

1: 221

— one packet was lost 221×

2: 4

— two successive packets were lost 4×

8: 1

— from 8 to 11 successive packets were lost 1×, Breaks count is assorted into intervals, which creates a progression similar to geometrical one: 1, 2, 3, 4 – 5, 6 – 7, 8 – 11, 12 – 15, 16 – 23, 24 – 31, etc.

longest breaks :(units: sec)

8: 20131 2: 2735 2: 19115 2: 34065

— time in seconds (from the last cold start) of individual breaks, listed according to the size of the break. The 12 longest are entered

delayed packets: 1

— all packets with break longer than 32768, i.e. very substantive drop-out

21.2. BER TEST

The BER test is a special test for evaluating the bit error rate. For the most part, it is used for laboratory measurement of the modem on a given fixed link where it is not necessary to reveal as much data in the report as in the Statistic test. When measuring the radio link, it is best to use the Statistic test.

On one side of the link, the BER Test must be set for transmission (t)est TX; the other side (the side to be evaluated) must be set for receiving (t)est RX. The setting for other parameters is contained in the section Statistic test.

The Ber test runs a one way Statistic test (one side TX, the other RX). Only the report is arranged to display only the bit error rate. The Ber is calculated from lost packets and their length.

From MORSE main menu type i t b Enter.

Menu for transmitting CU:

Ber (t)est:TX
(N):1   (d):690F8100h
random data (l)ength:10byte
(r)epeat period:1000ms + (j)itter:0ms
(s)tart r(e)port sto(p)

Meaning of items:

(N): 1

— determination of TX Node

(d): 690F8606

— address of RX Node


— and other items – see Section 21.1, “STATISTIC TEST”

Menu for receiving CU:

Ber (t)est:RX
(N):1   (d):690F8100h
random data (l)ength:-
(r)epeat period:- + (j)itter:-
(s)tart r(e)port sto(p)

Meaning of item:

(N): 1

— determination of RX node


— not used

s(o)urce: 8606h

— the lower word of TX node address (the upper word has to be equal to that of the RX node address)

Report from RX unit:

Ber report  only RX
source 00008606  dest 690F8100
packets received:  403         bytes per packet: 14
PER: 1:101.8    BER:      8.7e-05
PER :1:101.8

— probability of packet lost

BER :8.7e-05

— probability of bit lost (counted from packet size)


This test is used to transmit a precisely defined packet. With this service, it is possible to send a packet of any type and data structure to the MORSE network.

MORSE main menu type i t s Enter

Send packet: (N):1   (d):690F0300h
random data (l)ength:0byte
(r)epeat period:1000ms + (j)itter:0ms
(s)tart r(e)port sto(p)
(N): 1

determination of the originating node from

(d): 690F0300

— destination address

(t)ype: 0009h

— type of packet

s(o)urce: 690F8100h

— source address (can be different from the originating node address)(N))

The other parameters follow the statistic test submenu. There is one speciality about the Send packet test – when the (r)epeat period is set to zero, the test starts by (s)tart command, sends just one packet according to parameters and immediately stops itself (a one “shot” operation). In this case, a service report limited to “O.K.” comes as a response to the (s)tart command.

Normally, for periodical transmission, a response to the r(e)port command looks like this:

SPack report
source 690F8100  dest 300  Node 1
repeat period 1000 ms
data size 4 bytes


The Ping test is a Statistic test but with the report arranged so that a table with the response-times is displayed. If the RSS (m)easure is ON, the RSS/DQ table of RF links is also displayed.

From MORSE main menu type I t p Enter

Ping: (N):1   (d):69601000h
(g)o on:OFF
RSS (m)easure:ON
(r)epeat period:1000ms + (j)itter:0ms
random data (l)ength:0byte
Qualit(y) time constant:10s
(s)tart r(e)port sto(p)
  • OFF – whole report

  • ON – report offers only the quality value

For the meaning of remaining items see Section 21.1, “STATISTIC TEST”

Ping report
Node 1  source 690F8100  dest 69601000  security OFF

PINGS   TX: 115   RX: 114   Lost: 1
min:    462    max:   1051   aver:    559  qual:    552 ms
 448:     22    512:     86    640:      1    896:      4
1024:      1
       Path         DQ    RSS   HOM          Path         DQ    RSS   HOM
(690F8100-690F0300) 29.2  64.9  0.8   (690F0300-69501500) 30.4  70.1  0.3
(69501000-69601000) 29.9  99.0  0.0   (69601000-69501000) 28.8  96.4  0.9
(69501500-690F0300) 22.8  70.4  0.8   (690F0300-690F8100) 29.4  66.9  0.6

For the meaning of remaining items see statistical test report


The Round test simulates a polling-type user application i.e. calling to more CU from one centre, each of them separately. The test sends echo packets to selected group of destination Nodes. The lost packet probability and the average response time information are then available for every destination tested. This test is mostly used for network acceptance tests or as a network traffic generator, while the more detailed diagnostic information can be obtained from statistic logs from all participating CUs.

From MORSE main menu type i t r Enter

Round test:
(N):1  (d)
random data (l)ength:0byte
(r)epeat period:1000ms + (j)itter:0ms
(g)o on:OFF
(s)tart r(e)port sto(p)

Meaning of items:


— determining the originating Node


— list of destinations

type d Enter

   Rtest editor
   ( 1)e 0300
   ( 2)e 0400
   ( 3)e 8606

— clears all lines


— example and help for the editor

( 1)e 0300

— a line determining destination(s)

Only the lower word of the destination address can be configured in the editor, the upper word always equals the upper word of the originating Node address.

The editor line starts with one of the following letters:

  • i – Means interval and should be followed by two addresses separated by a space. All addresses starting from the first one up to and including the second one are entered into the list.

  • e – Means that the following addresses (separated by a space) are simply included in the list of polled destinations.


— and other items – see the Section 21.1, “STATISTIC TEST”.

Example of the round test report:

RTest report
source 690F8100  total TX 205

Node 1  security OFF
[dest - TX/PER/ping]
 300h - 69/1:69.0/96   400h - 68/1:+INF/230
8606h - 68/1:1.0/-NAN

Meaning of items:

source 690F8100

— address of the originating Node


— the total number of packets transmitted

Node 1

— number of the originating Node

security OFF

— test packets are transmitted as unsecured

  • dest – the destination address

  • TX – the number of transmitted packets to this destination

  • PER – lost packet probability

  • ping – the average response time in ms

In the example shown there was one lost packet to destination 690F0300, 690F0400 was OK and 690F8606 was switched off.


The memload test is used for loading one of the SW modules (MORSE A, B, E, W) from the source CU to the destination one. Loading of a new firmware module into an CU is a complex process and should be reserved for trained personnel only. Attempts to remotely load SW modules made by an unqualified person can have disastrous consequences for the network. The following paragraphs deal only with the respective Setr.exe menu and do not completely describe the software loading process! For more information, please contact RACOM technical support engineers (see www.racom.eu).

From MORSE main menu type i t l Enter

(N):1   (d):690F8100h
(E)xternal flash:OFF
ma(x) sectors:1   (m)odule:A
User module: fi(r)st:00300000   (l)ast:0037FF80
(s)tart r(e)port sto(p)
go MORSE (A)/(W)
(f)ire (k)ill (c)ontinue
go MORSE (B)

There are three different types of items in the memload menu:

  1. Memload parameters, which have to be set before the test is initiated by the (s)tart command

  2. (s)tart, r(e)port a sto(p)commands with standard behaviour

  3. Memload commands, which can only be applied to a running test. These commands are used to proceed from one state to another during the loading process.

ad 1.) Memload parameters:

(N) :1

— source Node in the CU

(d) :690F8100h

— destination Node (in the CU where the selected SW module will be be loaded to)

(E)xternal flash:OFF

— when this switch is ON, the selected software module is loaded into the external flash, which has to be connected to the main processor bus (used in production only)

ma(x) :1

— max. number of memory sectors per packet (for the purpose of memload, the memory sector size is set to 128 bytes, regardless of the actual flash sector size)

(m)odule :A

— choose the SW module to be loaded, see submenu module

(E)  E  – load modul E, D, G or H according to source CU
(A)  A 
(W)  W – modul W or A must be in source CU
(B)  B

User module:

— arbitrarily selected interval from the CU memory

fi(r)st: 00300000

— start address of the memory interval

(l)ast: 0037FF80

— end address

ad 2.) Standard test commands: (s)tart r(e)port sto(p)

ad 3.) Memload commands:

go MORSE (A)/(W)

— starts MORSE A (W) in the destination CU


— activates the connection between the Node, where the memload test runs, and the destination node. It is necessary to perform (i)nit after any change of state on any side (start of the test, start of MORSE A/W in the destination CU, an error received etc.)


— starts the loading


— forces interruption of the loading


— continues the loading process

go MORSE (B)

— by starting MORSE B this command performs a cold start of the destination CU

The memload report provides complete information about the current status of the loading process:

This is Memload v1.03 response
  max. MF sectors per packet :4
  loading module: MORSE A
  target        : 690F5513h
  status :ready Check result: none
  begin  :  374000h
  end    :  37D800h
  current:  374000h
  talking to MORSE E
  timeout 12000
  Time elapsed: 0msec   
  Transfer rate: nankbps 

Meaning of items:

max. MF sectors per packet: 1

— the number of 128 byte sectors currently transferred in a packet

loading module:MORSE A

— the software module being loaded


— the destination node address


— the status of the loading process (error states are displayed here)

begin: 374000h

— the start address of the memory part being loaded

end: 37D780h

— the end address

current: 374000h

– the start address of the currently transferred sector

talking to MORSE E

— indication of the SW module running in the destination CU (this information can be invalid while in an error state)

timeout 12000

— current value of the timeout

The status reported can have the following values:

  • stop – when the report was performed before initialisation of the memload channel

  • memfill error No – an error state (followed by the error number)

  • data continuity error – a mismatch in addresses of sectors transmitted and acknowledged has been detected

  • waiting for memfill response – normal state during loading

  • all sectors are O.K. – loading successfully completed

  • automated – automatic memload runs

  • ready – memload is prepared to start the loading process

Memfill error No can have these values:

  • 1 MF_CODE_ERROR – safeguard code error detected by the destination CU

  • 2 MF_RANGE_ERROR – attempt to enter an incorrect flash range

  • 3 MF_BOUNDARY_ERROR – attempt to enter an incorrect boundary sector

  • 4 MF_SIZE_ERROR – data delivered have a different size than the one stated in the header

Most error states can be resolved by the sequence of (i)nit a (c)ontinue memload commands.