Configuration

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5. Configuration

5.1. Introduction

The following configuration buttons are used for configuration:

  • Apply
    Apply and save parameters.

  • Cancel
    Set parameters are overwritten with original values.

  • Refresh
    Reload all current values of the unit / both units.

  • Show defaults
    Clicking the button displays the default values of all individual parameters on the current screen. To use these values, you must click on the “Apply” button.

  • Show backup
    Clicking the button displays the values of individual parameters held in the backup file (Backup/Settings/Open file upload). To use any of these values, you must use the “Apply” button. For loading the backup configuration see menu Tools/Maintenance/Backup.

  • Start
    Activating automatic refresh fields marked by icon using the Start button with the frequency circa 1 sec.

  • Stop
    Use the “Stop” button to stop automatic refresh of displayed information with 1sec period. Date and time values are refreshed anyway.

Configuration Controls

Fig. 5.1: Configuration Controls


Help

The microwave link configuration system is equipped with built in Help – see Help section. The Help is accessible in two forms:

  • Configuration parameter context help. The help text is displayed in the pop-up window after clicking the parameter name.

  • The whole user interface help, activated by clicking the Help menu.

Login

You can login into the configuration interface using either the insecure HTTP protocol (default login screen), or the secure HTTPS protocol. You should select the connection method on the login screen. If the HTTPS protocol is used, it is not possible to tap the network communication and acquire the station’s login information.

Login

Fig. 5.2: Login


[Note]Note

Antenna alignment link below Login window activates smartphone Antenna alignment tool. See its detailed description in chapter Live data.

Rollback function

If you interrupt the connection on an operating link by entering inappropriate radio link parameters, the original parameters will be restored after 1 minute. The connection is automatically restored.

5.2. Status bar

Status bar 1

Fig. 5.3: Status bar 1


The Status bar is located on the upper part of the screen below the title bar. It consists of 3 fields:

  • Local unit status (unit assigned to the IP address entered in the browser or CLI)

  • Local to Peer Link status.

  • Peer unit status.

Local and Peer field displays:

  • Station name according to configuration.

  • Actual time valid for respective unit.

  • Warning or Alarm icon in case of warning or alarm.

Link field display:

  • Status of the link between both sides of the microwave link.

  • Warning icon when the link is not capable of user data transfer.

The Link status can be one of the following values:

  • UNKNOWN
    Unit start up. The initialization is not yet finished.

  • SETUP
    Unit initialization according to valid configuration.

  • SINGLE
    Unit in operation status. Link to peer unit is not established.

  • CONNECTING
    Connection to peer unit in progress.

  • AUTHORIZING
    Authorization of the peer unit in progress.

  • OK
    Link is connected. Peer unit is authorized.

  • ANALYZER
    Spectrum analyzer mode active. User data are not transferred.

All link states except for the state of OK are highlighted with a triangle.:

Status bar 2

Fig. 5.4: Status bar 2


Example of a complete page – status bar, menu and control buttons.

5.3. Status

The “Status” menu provides basic information about local and remote station. Information is valid in the moment, the page is opened, or the Refresh button is clicked.
The Status/Brief tab shows only the most important values whereas the Status/Detailed tab provides further details. Below is a list of all values according to the tab Status/Detailed .
The icon marks fields which are automatically updated with 30 sec period (or 1 sec when the “Start” button is active).

Menu Status - Brief (example)

Fig. 5.5: Menu Status – Brief (example)


Menu Status - Detailed (example)

Fig. 5.6: Menu Status – Detailed (example)


5.3.1. Status – Detailed

General

  • Product code
    Unit product code – is the same as the Ordering code.

  • Serial no.
    Unit serial number.

    • Station name
      Station name (for example to reflect the unit location in the network topology).

      • Station location
        Station location (for example GPS position or to reflect the network topology hierarchy).

        • Radio SW version
          Software defined radio version.

        • Firmware version
          Unit’s firmware version.

        • Date, Time
          The internal real-time clock. The clock is set manually or it is synchronized with NTP server and set for both units.

          • Inside temperature [°C]
            Temperature inside the unit (on the modem board).

            • Voltage [V]
              Unit’s power supply voltage level.

            Radio

            • Band index
              Radio unit type: L (Lower) or U (Upper) part of the frequency band.

              • TX polarization
                Horizontal or vertical polarization based on the physical installation. Indicates the polarization of the transmitted signal. Local and Peer are indicated separately. The proper position of the cable is sideways down.
                Notice for RAy3-17 and RAy3-24 links: One side of the link must be installed in vertical polarization and the other in horizontal polarization.

                • Frequency table
                  Displays the currently used frequency table in format <name:version>.

                • Net bitrate [Mbps]
                  Current transfer capacity of radio channel for user data.

                • Max. net bitrate [Mbps]
                  The maximum RF channel capacity according to installed feature key.

                • Bandwidth [MHz]
                  One of the standard channel widths can be selected. This parameter must be set identically in local and remote.

                • TX and RX channel [GHz]
                  Used channels. Both number of the channel and frequency in GHz are listed.

                • TX modulation
                  Modulation type currently used for transmitting. When adaptive modulation is enabled, the ACM letters are displayed as well as information about maximum permitted modulation: “current modulation ACM / maximum modulation”

                • TX power [dBm]
                  Current output power on the RF channel in dBm. If ATPC is enabled, the ATPC letters are displayed as well as information about maximum permitted power: “current power ATPC / maximum power”

                • RSS [dBm]
                  Received signal strength. If ATPC is enabled, the ATPC letters are displayed as well as information about threshold value for activation of power control loop: “current RSS ATPC / threshold RSS”

                • MSE [dB]
                  Mean Square Error (the inverse to often used SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio). If ATPC is enabled, the ATPC letters are displayed as well as information about threshold value for activation of power control loop: “current MSE ATPC / threshold MSE”

                • BER [-]
                  Bit Error Rate is registered at the receiving end; instantaneous value.

                  • Link uptime
                    Time elapsed since the current link connection has been established.

                    Switch interface

                    • Egress rate limit Air
                      Status of the Egress rate limiter on the Air interface. The traffic can be limited according to bits per second or frames per second.

                      Message format for bits per second: “xx.xx Mbps Ly auto” where:

                      • xx.xx Mbps — Egress speed limit.

                      • Ly — L1/L2/L3 which Ethernet layer is used for speed calculation.

                      • auto — gives information about active Speed guard function.

                      Message format for frames per second: “xx.xx fps” where:

                      • xx.xx fps — Egress frames per second limit.

                    • Link mode Eth1, 2
                      Status of Ethernet interface. Current bit rate (10 = 10BASE-T, 100 = 100BASE-TX and 1000 = 1000BASE-T) and state of duplex (FD = full duplex, HD = half duplex).

                      Service access

                      • MAC address
                        HW address of the Ethernet module.

                      • IPv4 address
                        IP address in the standard dotted decimal notation, including the bit width of netmask after the forward slash.

                        • Management VLAN
                          Service access via VLAN management only.

                          • Services
                            Services enabled for unit management and monitoring (Web, Telnet, SSH, SNMP, NTP).

                          • USB accessories
                            Indicates physical devices inside USB connector in system slot ‘S’ and its status, for example:

                            • n/a – info not available (peer has older fw),

                            • No device – unplugged,

                            • (Product) – not a network device,

                            • WiFi: disabled,

                            • WiFi: 169.254.170.168 / 28,

                            • Eth: disabled,

                            • Eth: 169.254.170.168 / 28

                            • Unit 24S compatibility (formerly ‘Unit S mode’)
                              This parameter is available only for newly deployed 24 GHz units without the ‘S’ label in Product code (i.e. ’24S’). When “active”, the unit behaves like the unit ’24S’ (it can establish a link only with another ’24S’ unit). For a link between the units without the ‘S’ label, this compatibility needs to be disabled (“off”).

                              Radio link statistics

                              • Statistics Cleared
                                Time of log clearing.

                              • Statistics Period
                                Period of log refresh.

                              • Overall Link Uptime
                                Overall time the link has been connected.

                              • Overall Link Downtime
                                Overall time the link has been disconnected.

                              • Reliability [%]
                                The ratio of “Uptime” and “Downtime”.

                              • Current Link Uptime
                                Current time the link has been connected.

                              • The Longest Drop
                                The longest downtime period recorded.

                              • The Last Drop
                                Length of the last link interruption.

                              • Number of Drops
                                Number of link interruptions.

                                5.4. Link settings

                                5.4.1. General

                                Setup of general parameters of the link.

                                Menu Link settings / General

                                Fig. 5.7: Menu Link settings / General


                                • Product code
                                  Unit type indicator.

                                • Serial no.
                                  Unit serial number.

                                  • IPv4 address
                                    IP address in the standard dotted decimal notation, including the bit width of netmask after the forward slash.

                                    • Station name
                                      Station name can be modified by user (for example to reflect the unit location in the network topology).

                                      • Station location
                                        Station location can be modified by user (for example to reflect the network topology hierarchy).

                                        • Date, Time
                                          The internal real-time clock. The clock is set manually or it is synchronized with NTP server and set for both units.

                                          • Time source
                                            Time synchronization source setup. Manual setup or NTP protocol use. For easier diagnostics of link operation, it is recommended to use the NTP time synchronization.

                                            • Adjust time
                                              Manual time setup. Use the dialog box to manually set the current date and time. You can copy time from browser (local PC).
                                                   

                                            • NTP source IP
                                              IP address of the time synchronization server.

                                              • NTP period
                                                Time synchronization interval.

                                                • Time zone
                                                  Unit Time zone in the format <Configured time zone> (<Used time zone code> <time offset>) ie.: “Europe/Prague (CEST +2:00)”.

                                                  [Note]Note

                                                  When the time zone is changed, the original values set in the RAy unit are kept. The actual change takes place after OS restart in order to prevent unexpected states related with local time change.

                                                  • Adjust time zone
                                                    Use the dialog box to set the new time zone. You can copy the time zone from a browser (local PC), select the time zone code from a list or input time zone string.
                                                    The string can be either time zone code from IANA time zone database (ie.: “Europe/Prague”) or the POSIX format (ie.: “CET-01:00:00CEST-02:00:00,M3.5.0/02:00:00,M10.5.0/03:00:00”). The posix format allows shortened variants usage when default values are used (ie.: “CET”, “CET-1CEST”, …).
                                                    The unit will reboot to use the new setting.

                                                    5.4.2. Radio

                                                    5.4.2.1. Radio parameters

                                                    Setup of general parameters of the radio link.

                                                    Menu Link settings / Radio

                                                    Fig. 5.8: Menu Link settings / Radio


                                                    • Band index
                                                      Radio unit type: L(ower) or U(pper) part of the frequency band.

                                                      • TX polarization
                                                        Horizontal or vertical polarization based on the physical installation. Indicates the polarization of the transmitted signal. Local and Peer are indicated separately. The proper position of the cable is sideways down.
                                                        Notice for RAy3-17 and RAy3-24 links: One side of the link must be installed in vertical polarization and the other in horizontal polarization.

                                                        • Asymmetric bandwidth
                                                          Enable asymmetric channel bandwidth.

                                                          • TX bandwidth [MHz], RX bandwidth [MHz]
                                                            One of the standard channel widths can be selected. This parameter must be set identically in local and remote (local TX bandwidth = peer RX bandwidth and local RX bandwidth = peer TX bandwidth). When units are connected, this is ensured automatically. If asymmetry is not allowed, then TX bandwidth = RX bandwidth on both units.

                                                            • Frequency input
                                                              Allows to choose if TX and RX channel frequencies are selected from the list of predefined channels or if manual input of frequencies would be possible (if supported).

                                                              • TX channel [GHz], RX channel [GHz]
                                                                TX and RX channels are selected from a list of channels. The basic configuration has the TX and RX options interconnected. In this case the basic duplex spacing between channels is preserved and by selecting one channel, the other three are defined as well. For units operating in free bands, it is possible to disconnect the TX-RX lock and select TX and RX channels individually. Corresponding channels at peer unit are set automatically.

                                                                [Note]Note

                                                                Non-standard duplex setting leads to non-effective use of the spectrum.

                                                                • Duplex spacing [MHz]
                                                                  Information about duplex spacing of TX and RX channel.

                                                                • ACM maximal TX modulation
                                                                  Upper limit of the ACM (Automatic Coding and Modulation) algorithm.
                                                                  Select lower than highest available modulation if the link speed fluctuation needs to be prevented.
                                                                  Select the same value for maximal and for minimal TX modulation if the link speed needs to be constant.
                                                                  The high order modulations may not be available for the narrowest and for the widest channel bandwidths.

                                                                  • ACM minimal TX modulation
                                                                    Lower limit of the ACM (Automatic Coding and Modulation) algorithm.
                                                                    Select higher than lowest available modulation if certain level of link speed needs to be guaranteed.
                                                                    Select the same value for maximal and for minimal TX modulation if the link speed needs to be constant.

                                                                    • ATPC
                                                                      Enable automatic control of RF power (its maximum is defined by parameter ‘TX power’ – see below).
                                                                      Once enabled, the TX power is regulated towards lower level while maintaining signal level high enough not to affect current degree of modulation.

                                                                      • ATPC RSS threshold [dBm]
                                                                        Comparison RSS with this threshold is used for signaling to the peer ATPC algorithm to adjust RF power.
                                                                        The lowest allowed RSS (the threshold) is approx. 10 dBm above declared sensitivity for BER 10-6. If necessary, it is possible to use this parameter to move the threshold slightly up or down.

                                                                        • TX power [dBm]
                                                                          RF output power. With ATPC enabled this parameter defines maximum RF power level.

                                                                          • Antenna gain [dBi]
                                                                            Valid only for 17 GHz and 24 GHz links.
                                                                            Gain of used antenna. It is used to calculate approximate EIRP.

                                                                            • EIRP ?= limit [dBm]
                                                                              Valid only for 17 GHz and 24 GHz links.
                                                                              Approximate calculation of EIRP. Number on the right shows the allowed EIRP limit (in most countries it is 20 dBm). Sign between numbers gives information on compliance / noncompliance with allowed EIRP limits.

                                                                            The principle behind ATPC is to maintain the lowest transmitting power without affecting the throughput of the link. The output is primarily controlled by RSS on the opposite side. ATPC is also used to maintain MSE thus protecting the selected modulation level.
                                                                            The ATPC Control loop is evaluated once per second.

                                                                            The principle behind ACM is to maintain the connection between the two units even when degraded propagation conditions are experienced which make it impossible to maintain the selected modulation level. ACM regulates TX modulation across all ranges from ACM min TX modulation up to ACM max TX modulation (as configured by the user) according to the limits in table ACM switching according to MSE state.
                                                                            ACM control loop is evaluated with each frame, i.e. roughly after tens of microseconds.

                                                                            In normal operating conditions, ATPC is applied first (even if it is the slower control loop). When deterioration in propagation conditions gradually increases the attenuation on the route, it is compensated by increasing RF power. ACM control will only be applied in conditions when ATPC reaches its ceiling.

                                                                            5.4.2.2. Encryption

                                                                            Menu Link settings / Radio / Encryption

                                                                            Fig. 5.9: Menu Link settings / Radio / Encryption


                                                                            Part of user data traffic (one Ethernet port) can be AES encrypted to ensure the security of the over-the-air communication. IPsec VPN tunnel by Security Association with symmetrical cryptography is used to encrypt the packets and to ensure keys are safely delivered to the peer and regularly exchanged.

                                                                            The protocol used for secure key exchange is IKE (Internet Key Exchange) version 2.

                                                                            Link partner (peer) secure authentication is assured using Pre-Shared Key (PSK) authentication. Both link partners share the same key (password).

                                                                            The other (non-encrypted) Ethernet port can be used simultaneously with the encrypted port for data transfer and/or for the unit management. The link capacity in the air is shared by both Ethernet ports. The encrypted traffic has a higher priority.

                                                                            • Enable
                                                                              When user data encryption is enabled, the IPsec tunnel is started.

                                                                              • Port
                                                                                The Encryption service encrypts all the user data traffic originating from one of two Ethernet ports. Ethernet port Eth1 or Eth2 needs to be selected. It is possible to select different Ethernet ports on each side of the link (e.g. Eth1 on Local and Eth2 on Peer).

                                                                                • DF Ignore
                                                                                  If the communication over the given Ethernet port is encrypted, the longest packet passing through without fragmentation are 2048 Bytes long. The longer packets need to be fragmented:

                                                                                  • in the previous network device, or

                                                                                  • the DF (Do-Not-Fragment) bit in the incoming packets must be cleared, or

                                                                                  • the DF Ignore bit needs to be set

                                                                                  Packets longer than 9000 Bytes are discarded.

                                                                                  • IPsec Encryption algorithm
                                                                                    IPsec SA encryption algorithm. The stronger the algorithm, the lower the user data throughput.

                                                                                    • IPsec Authentication algorithm
                                                                                      IPsec SA integrity algorithm. The stronger the algorithm, the lower the user data throughput.

                                                                                      • IKE Encryption algorithm
                                                                                        IKE SA encryption algorithm.

                                                                                        • IKE Authentication algorithm
                                                                                          IKE SA integrity algorithm.

                                                                                          • PSK Passphrase
                                                                                            PSK (Pre-shared key) authentication is used for IKE SA authentication. The key must be the same for both Local and Peer units.

                                                                                            [Note]Note

                                                                                            PIRL setup recommendation
                                                                                            In order to prevent Ethernet switch to management CPU connection overload and to keep the unit management connection available it is recommended to set PIRL for the given port (for example) following way (only modified parameters are mentioned):

                                                                                            • Rate [Mbps] – Green: 150

                                                                                            • Size [kB] – Green: 10.5

                                                                                            • Account discarded frames: Yes (checked)

                                                                                            • Account filtered frames: Yes (checked)

                                                                                            • Flow control de-assertion: CBS limit

                                                                                            • Frame types (checked): Unknown unicast; Unknown multicast; Unknown broadcast; Multicast/Broadcast; Unicast; Network management; ARP; TCP data; TCP control; UDP; “IGMP,ICMP,GRE,IGRP,L2TP”

                                                                                              5.4.3. Service access

                                                                                              5.4.3.1. Services

                                                                                              Access routes for link configuration.

                                                                                              Menu Link settings / Service access / Services

                                                                                              Fig. 5.10: Menu Link settings / Service access / Services


                                                                                              Service access
                                                                                              • IPv4 address
                                                                                                Service IP address, by default 192.168.169.169 for L unit and 192.168.169.170 for U unit. Management address of the Peer station has to be set up as well.

                                                                                                  [Note]Note

                                                                                                  Unknown IP address
                                                                                                  If you forget the Service IPv4 address, it can be found by reading data broadcast through LLDP protocol. Data is transmitted every 60 seconds and contains the following information:

                                                                                                  • 1. Management address: IP address

                                                                                                  • 2. System Description: Serial number

                                                                                                  • 3. Chassis Subtype: Unit product type

                                                                                                  • 4. IEEE 802.1 – Port and Protocol VLAN ID: Port and Protocol VLAN Identifier: (e.g. 300 (0x012C)) but only if Management VLAN is enabled

                                                                                                  The message can be recorded and converted into a readable form using an LLDP client. A suitable tool for this purpose is Wireshark IP traffic analyzing tool, with free licenses available for both Windows and Linux. To locate the message easily, use the Capture filter “ether proto 0x88cc” in Wireshark.

                                                                                                • Netmask
                                                                                                  Mask for service access, 24 by default.

                                                                                                  • Gateway
                                                                                                    Default gateway for service access; empty by default.

                                                                                                    • Management VLAN, 1st tag, 2nd tag
                                                                                                      Enables management access via VLAN. Management VLAN can be single-tagged or dual-tagged. Line for 2nd tag gets active only after 1st tag is activated. Blocks access for HTTPS, ssh and telnet configuration via untagged packets (without VLAN) making only VLAN access possible. VLAN management is off by default.

                                                                                                      [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                      By enabling VLAN management, ALL accesses are blocked for configuration using normal (untagged) LAN! During tests, you may enable VLAN management on one unit only. Then it is possible to access the link via LAN and VLAN either directly or via radio link.

                                                                                                      • VID
                                                                                                        VLAN management ID, by default 1. This field must have a value entered even when VLAN management is not active.

                                                                                                        • Protocol
                                                                                                          Protocol 802.1q or 802.1ad

                                                                                                          Services
                                                                                                          • Web server
                                                                                                            Allows access via web server (for HTTP and HTTPS protocol).

                                                                                                            [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                            After disabling access via web server, you will not be able to access the unit using a web browser!

                                                                                                            • CLI (telnet)
                                                                                                              Enables access via telnet protocol. Provides access to CLI (Command Line Interface) for simple telnet clients. Disabled by default.

                                                                                                              • CLI (SSH)
                                                                                                                Enables access via SSH protocol. Provides secure access to CLI. If preventing unauthorized access to the unit is the number one priority, leave only this server on.

                                                                                                                • SNMPEnabling SNMP server. Off by default.

                                                                                                                  • SNMP community string
                                                                                                                    SNMP community string. Can contain both lower and uppercase letters, numbers, four characters . : _ – and can be up to 256 characters long.

                                                                                                                    • SNMP trap IP
                                                                                                                      Address for sending SNMP traps. It is possible to record up to 3 addresses separated by commas.

                                                                                                                      • LED indicators
                                                                                                                        Enable LED status indicators on the body of the unit. You can turn off LED indication with this option.

                                                                                                                        • LLDP (Service IP info)
                                                                                                                          Data transmitted through the LLDP protocol can be accessed in two ways:

                                                                                                                          • OnTransmissions every 60 seconds

                                                                                                                          • SingleTransmitted once only when unit is rebooted

                                                                                                                          See “IPv4 address – Local … Unknown IP address” for description of the data transmitted through the LLDP protocol.

                                                                                                                          • Link authorization guard
                                                                                                                            User data flow to the remote unit can be established dependent on remote station authorization. The authorization is secured by using SSH keys. For info about unit authorization see user manual, section CLI / Configuration with CLI / Remote unit authorization.

                                                                                                                            • Disabled — User data flow through the Air channel is enabled even if the remote unit is not authorized.

                                                                                                                            • Enabled — User data flow through the Air channel is enabled only if the remote unit is authorized. The “Link authorization guard” parameter value of the remote unit is ignored.

                                                                                                                            • Speed guard
                                                                                                                              The speed guard controls automatically the Egress data rate shaping according to available capacity of the Air channel. The Air channel capacity check and the Egress shaping adjustment takes place approx. once per 50 ms.

                                                                                                                              5.4.3.2. USB accessories

                                                                                                                              The USB connector is used for management access (not for user data) to the local unit using Ethernet or WiFi adapter. Only RACOM recommended adapters are supported.

                                                                                                                              Default WiFi IP address of the unit is 172.17.17.17 with DHCP enabled by default allocating IP address automatically to connected device.

                                                                                                                              Menu Link settings / Service access / USB accessories

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.11: Menu Link settings / Service access / USB accessories


                                                                                                                              • USB info
                                                                                                                                Status information about device connected via the USB:
                                                                                                                                n/a – info not available (HW not known to RAy3 FW = probably not RACOM supplied accessory), or
                                                                                                                                No device – no device plugged in the USB port, or
                                                                                                                                List of basic USB module credentials:

                                                                                                                                • Vendor ID: Product ID

                                                                                                                                • Manufacturer

                                                                                                                                • Product

                                                                                                                                • WiFi/Eth: up/down — only for network device

                                                                                                                                • MAC — only for network device

                                                                                                                              • IPv4 address
                                                                                                                                Unit service management address when connecting via USB port.

                                                                                                                              • Netmask
                                                                                                                                Network mask when connecting via USB port.

                                                                                                                              • DHCP start, DHCP end
                                                                                                                                DHCP range for dynamic address allocation of the management client connected via USB port.

                                                                                                                              • Ethernet adapter Enable
                                                                                                                                Enables operation of USB/Eth adapter.

                                                                                                                              • Ethernet adapter DHCP
                                                                                                                                Enables DHCP on WiFi adapter if present (for automatic setting of client(s) IP address).

                                                                                                                              • WiFi adapter Enable on Air link loss
                                                                                                                                WiFi is activated only during Air-Link loss – means WiFi starts to work and transmit SSID. WiFi is activated 60 seconds after Air-Link loss and deactivated 600 seconds after the Air-Link is restored. The WiFi passphrase should be set by admin before using this option (if not WiFi management alarm is activated).

                                                                                                                              • WiFi adapter Force enable
                                                                                                                                WiFi is forced to be permanently active (and to transmit SSID) and WiFi management alarm is activated. WiFi passphrase should be set by admin before using this option.
                                                                                                                                This parameter has a higher priority than “WiFi adapter enable on Air link loss”, so if it is set ON then WiFi activity does not depend on Air-Link status.

                                                                                                                              • WiFi adapter DHCP
                                                                                                                                Enables DHCP on WiFi adapter if present (for automatic setting of client(s) IP address).

                                                                                                                              • WiFi SSID
                                                                                                                                Name of service WiFi visible by clients (can be max 32 characters long).

                                                                                                                              • WiFi Encryption
                                                                                                                                Service WiFi encryption is WPA2 and cannot be changed. Factory default is “none” due to missing passphrase. WPA2 is applied automatically once any passphrase is entered.

                                                                                                                              • WiFi Passphrase
                                                                                                                                Service WiFi passphrase has to be 8-64 characters long. The WiFi passphrase should be set by admin before any use of WiFi. Until passphrase is set, WiFi management alarm is activated.

                                                                                                                              • WiFi Mode
                                                                                                                                Service WiFi mode can be IEEE 802.11n or IEEE 802.11g

                                                                                                                              • WiFi Channel
                                                                                                                                WiFi channel can be set 1-11 depending on WiFi mode setting (see parameter above):
                                                                                                                                IEEE 802.11n — channels 1-7
                                                                                                                                IEEE 802.11g — channels 1-11
                                                                                                                                The WiFi adapter does not search for conflicts in the air. If problems occur, changing the channel is the easiest way to resolve the issue.

                                                                                                                              5.4.3.3. Users

                                                                                                                              List and setup of users. Example menu of the cli_super level user.

                                                                                                                              Menu Link settings / Service access / Users

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.12: Menu Link settings / Service access / Users


                                                                                                                              Within the default Factory Settings one user is defined in the system. This user has username admin and password admin and is assigned the highest level of permissions cli_super. This user then assigns other users to the system along with their level of permissions.

                                                                                                                              Service access has three groups of users with different levels of permissions.

                                                                                                                               Permissionscli_guestcli_admincli_super
                                                                                                                               Create new userNoNoYes
                                                                                                                               Change own passwordYesYesYes
                                                                                                                               Delete user *NoNoYes
                                                                                                                               Copy (Mirror) permissions local to peerNoNoYes
                                                                                                                               Configure and modify link settingsNoYesYes

                                                                                                                              Numbers of users that can be defined in the system:

                                                                                                                               GroupNo of users
                                                                                                                               cli_guest10
                                                                                                                               cli_admin10
                                                                                                                               cli_super *2

                                                                                                                                 * The system prevents the user from deleting both cli_super accounts.

                                                                                                                              The logged-on user is shown in the top right of the screen. There can be different users on either end of the link.

                                                                                                                              [Important]Important

                                                                                                                              It is strongly recommended that the default password admin is changed. Similarly, all other users should change their password. Using the CLI, it is appropriate to supplement the SSH key.

                                                                                                                              Local, Peer

                                                                                                                              List of users on Local and Peer stations.

                                                                                                                              • Username
                                                                                                                                This name is entered at Login to log into the link management.

                                                                                                                              • Group
                                                                                                                                User group to which the user belongs.

                                                                                                                                • cli_guest — Read Only

                                                                                                                                • cli_admin — Configure and modify link settings

                                                                                                                                • cli_super — Configure and modify user accounts and link settings

                                                                                                                              • Password
                                                                                                                                Information about whether user has a password

                                                                                                                              • SSH key
                                                                                                                                Information about whether user has at least one ssh key defined.

                                                                                                                              [Note]Note

                                                                                                                              More users concurrently
                                                                                                                              If two or more users work concurrently on the unit any change of configuration settings should be applied by all users. This applies to the menu Link settings which works with both, Local and Peer parameters.
                                                                                                                              If one user sends the Apply command, other users will receive a message: “Configuration changed, please go to Link settings and click Refresh”. Other users can only use the Apply command after refreshing Link Settings.

                                                                                                                              Edit user

                                                                                                                              Clicking “Edit” next to a username opens a screen with configuration of the given account.

                                                                                                                              Menu Link settings / Service access / Users / edit

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.13: Menu Link settings / Service access / Users / edit


                                                                                                                              • Username
                                                                                                                                User name.

                                                                                                                              • Group
                                                                                                                                The group to which this user will belong.

                                                                                                                              • Password
                                                                                                                                Password can be set or deleted.

                                                                                                                                • Delete — User will not have a password. The user will only be able to log in with a ssh key. In order to delete the password, you must first upload the ssh key.

                                                                                                                                • Set — Password settings

                                                                                                                              • New password
                                                                                                                                New password.

                                                                                                                              • Confirm password
                                                                                                                                Repeat password.

                                                                                                                              • SSH key
                                                                                                                                Working with ssh key.

                                                                                                                                • Delete — Clear all ssh keys from user account.

                                                                                                                                • Set/replace — Add a new key. If there already was any key(s), it will be overwritten.

                                                                                                                                • Add — Add a new key. You can enter multiple ssh keys in this way.

                                                                                                                              • Key file
                                                                                                                                Insert key file.

                                                                                                                              Save the menu content by clicking on the button Apply.

                                                                                                                              [Note]Note

                                                                                                                              The user settings can be backed up, see Tools / Maintenance / Backup.

                                                                                                                              Delete user

                                                                                                                              Users at level cli_super have a Delete button next to each user. Delete a user using this button without being asked to confirm deletion. Users at level cli_super cannot both be deleted.

                                                                                                                              Add user

                                                                                                                              The button is located on the bottom bar.

                                                                                                                              For level cli_super users, the “Add user” button is active. Use it to create a new user within any group.

                                                                                                                              • Username
                                                                                                                                Name of new user.

                                                                                                                              • Group
                                                                                                                                The group to which this user is assigned.

                                                                                                                              • New password
                                                                                                                                Password for this user.

                                                                                                                              • Confirm password
                                                                                                                                Repeat password.

                                                                                                                              • SSH key
                                                                                                                                If you want the user to have access using ssh protocol and identity verification using ssh key, enter the ssh key here.

                                                                                                                              Create a new user account by clicking on the button Apply.

                                                                                                                              Mirror users

                                                                                                                              The button is located on the bottom bar.

                                                                                                                              For level cli_super users, the “Mirror users” button is active. This function will copy all user accounts from Local unit to Peer unit. All existing user accounts on the Peer unit are deleted.

                                                                                                                              5.4.4. Alarms

                                                                                                                              5.4.4.1. Alarms Status

                                                                                                                              Menu Link settings / Alarms / Status

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.14: Menu Link settings / Alarms / Status


                                                                                                                              Alarm severity

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.15: Alarm severity


                                                                                                                              Overview of alarms

                                                                                                                              All system alarms are listed on this screen. Inactive alarms are colored white with an “OK” text label. Active alarms are colored according to the severity of the alarm with a text message describing the measured value status.

                                                                                                                              For a detailed description of each Alarm click on the Alarm name.

                                                                                                                              5.4.4.2. Alarms Acknowledge

                                                                                                                              Menu Link settings / Alarms / Acknowledge

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.16: Menu Link settings / Alarms / Acknowledge


                                                                                                                              Alarm acknowledgement allows the operator to confirm the system is set in alarm state. Only an active alarm can be acknowledged. Multiple selections of active alarms (to acknowledge groups of alarms) can be performed using Shift or Ctrl keys.

                                                                                                                              • Name
                                                                                                                                Alarm identification – The following alarms can appear:
                                                                                                                                Inside temperature, Voltage min, Voltage max, RSS, MSE, BER, Net bitrate, Air link, Eth1 link, Eth2 link, RF power, WiFi management

                                                                                                                              • State
                                                                                                                                There are three possible alarm states:

                                                                                                                                • OK — No alarm (alarm is inactive) or alarm disabled.

                                                                                                                                • Ack — Alarm is active and acknowledged.

                                                                                                                                • Alarm — Alarm is active and is not acknowledged.

                                                                                                                              • From
                                                                                                                                Time stamp when the alarm occurred.

                                                                                                                              • To
                                                                                                                                Time stamp when the alarm expired (returned to normal conditions).

                                                                                                                              • Ack
                                                                                                                                Time stamp when the alarm was acknowledged.
                                                                                                                                Time stamp format: yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss

                                                                                                                              • User
                                                                                                                                Name (login) of the user who acknowledged the alarm.

                                                                                                                              • Comment
                                                                                                                                The comment field can be used to add user defined comments when an ‘alarm acknowledge’ is performed. Use this comment field to describe important details of the alarm status. The comment can be up to 50 characters long. Special characters are not allowed.
                                                                                                                                The alarm can be acknowledged multiple times with different comments. Every acknowledgement is written to the internal memory and is visible in the alarm log.

                                                                                                                              5.4.4.3. Alarms Config

                                                                                                                              Menu Link settings / Alarms / Config

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.17: Menu Link settings / Alarms / Config


                                                                                                                              The diagnostics system of the link monitors the operation of both units.

                                                                                                                              It generates various event outputs – system warnings and alarms. The event is always written to the system log and indicated in the status bar and Alarms/Status screen. Some events have adjustable thresholds. Events with no adjustable thresholds may or may not be Enabled. If they are not Enabled, the system event is not activated even if the system status is changed.

                                                                                                                              If the event goes above or below the set parameter limits or a link goes down or up, you can choose to send an SNMP trap. All SNMP traps are OFF in defaults.

                                                                                                                              Alarms
                                                                                                                              • Inside temperature [°C]
                                                                                                                                Default >80
                                                                                                                                Temperature inside the unit (on the modem board). Active if temperature exceeds the threshold.

                                                                                                                              • Voltage min [V]
                                                                                                                                Default <40
                                                                                                                                Lower threshold of supply voltage. Active if voltage drops below min voltage threshold.
                                                                                                                                The same SNMP trap (same OID) applies for both Voltage min and max.

                                                                                                                              • Voltage max [V]
                                                                                                                                Default >58
                                                                                                                                Upper threshold of supply voltage. Active if voltage rises above max voltage threshold.
                                                                                                                                The same SNMP trap (same OID) applies for both Voltage min and max.

                                                                                                                              • RSS [dBm]
                                                                                                                                Default <-80
                                                                                                                                Received Signal Strength. Active if RSS drops below RSS threshold.

                                                                                                                              • MSE [dB]
                                                                                                                                Default >0
                                                                                                                                Mean Square Error (the inverse to often used SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio). Active if MSE rises above MSE threshold.

                                                                                                                              • BER [-]
                                                                                                                                Default >10e-6
                                                                                                                                Bit Error Rate is registered at the receiving end of the link – instantaneous value. Active if BER exceeds the threshold set in this parameter.

                                                                                                                              • Net bitrate [Mbps]
                                                                                                                                Default >0
                                                                                                                                The system warning is generated when the current transfer capacity of radio channel is lower than the threshold set in this parameter.

                                                                                                                              • Air link down
                                                                                                                                Default on
                                                                                                                                Interruption of radio link. Active if radio link is interrupted and units can not communicate by Air.

                                                                                                                              • Eth1/Eth2 link down
                                                                                                                                Default off
                                                                                                                                Corresponding user Eth link (Eth1/Eth2) on station interrupted.

                                                                                                                                [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                The “EthX link” system alarm can only be activated if this alarm is Enabled. When the alarm is not Enabled, the “EthX link” alarm on Status screen is always “Ok” regardless of the current status of the Ethernet link.

                                                                                                                              • WiFi Management
                                                                                                                                Default on
                                                                                                                                Warning is generated when WiFi passphrase is not set or WiFi adapter (and Host Access Point) is permanently enabled (WiFi Force Enable is ON). Parameter can not be changed in web interface (only through CLI).

                                                                                                                              Events
                                                                                                                              • Air capacity changed
                                                                                                                                Default off
                                                                                                                                If allowed, the Event and/or SNMP Trap is generated when Net bitrate of the air channel changes (e.g. because of ACM operation).

                                                                                                                              5.5. Switch settings

                                                                                                                              Ethernet switch is a key part of the RAy3 unit. It is responsible for data transfer inside the unit – see Appendix B, Unit block diagrams.

                                                                                                                              5.5.1. Status

                                                                                                                              5.5.1.1. Port status

                                                                                                                              The unit internal Ethernet switch port status

                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / Status / Port status

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.18: Menu Switch settings / Status / Port status


                                                                                                                              • Port name
                                                                                                                                Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).

                                                                                                                                • Eth1 (port1) — The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.

                                                                                                                                • Eth2 (port10) — The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.

                                                                                                                                • CPU (port0) — The internal port to management CPU.

                                                                                                                                • Air (port9) — The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

                                                                                                                              • Link status
                                                                                                                                Ethernet link status can be

                                                                                                                                • down — no link signal detected

                                                                                                                                • up — link signal detected

                                                                                                                              • Speed / duplex
                                                                                                                                Ethernet link Speed and duplex.

                                                                                                                                • Speed: — 0/100/1000 Mbps.

                                                                                                                                • Duplex: — full/half

                                                                                                                              • SFP info
                                                                                                                                Information about the (optionally) inserted SFP module – see Section 1.3.2, “SFP slot (ETH2)” for info about available SFP modules. Four situations may appear:

                                                                                                                                • SFP OK — The SFP vendor string read out of SFP module. The vendor, model, connector (RJ45/LC) and wavelength values are shown. Separate window with more detailed information can be opened by clicking the “more…” link.

                                                                                                                                • No SFP module — SFP module not inserted

                                                                                                                                • read error — SFP info can not be read

                                                                                                                                • no SFP option — n/a

                                                                                                                              • MDIX
                                                                                                                                Status of the internal crossover of Ethernet cables. (MDIX = internally crossed pairs, MDI = direct connection, N/A means an unknown state).

                                                                                                                              • Tx state
                                                                                                                                Port transmitting status can be

                                                                                                                                • transmitting — Normal port operation.

                                                                                                                                • paused — Port transmitter is paused due to Pause frames reception.

                                                                                                                                • n/a — Info not available.

                                                                                                                              • Stp state
                                                                                                                                Ethernet switch port forwarding control.

                                                                                                                                • disabled — The switch port is disabled and it will not receive or transmit any frames.

                                                                                                                                • forwarding — The switch examines all frames, learning source addresses (SA) from all good frames (except those from MGMT frames) and receives and transmits all frames as a normal switch.

                                                                                                                                • blocking — Only MGMT frames are allowed to enter (ingress) or leave (egress) a Blocked port. All other frame types are discarded. Learning is disabled on Blocked ports.

                                                                                                                                • learning — Only MGMT frames are allowed to enter (ingress) of leave (egress) a Learning port. All other frame types are discarded but learning takes place on all good non-MGMT frames that are not discarded owing to being filtered.

                                                                                                                              • QoS
                                                                                                                                Quality of Service status. It will be available starting from FW version 1.1.1.0. It can present one of the following values:

                                                                                                                                • disabled — QoS functions are disabled.

                                                                                                                                • 802.1p — QoS according to 802.1p is enabled.

                                                                                                                                • DSCP — QoS according to DSCP is enabled.

                                                                                                                                • 802.1p,DSCP — QoS according to 802.1p and DSCP is enabled. The 802.1 prefer tag is selected.

                                                                                                                                • DSCP,802.1p — QoS according to 802.1p and DSCP is enabled. The DSCP prefer tag is selected.

                                                                                                                              5.5.1.2. RMON counters

                                                                                                                              The unit internal Ethernet switch RMON counters

                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / Status / RMON counters

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.19: Menu Switch settings / Status / RMON counters


                                                                                                                              The Remote Network MONitoring (RMON) MIB was developed by the IETF to support monitoring and protocol analysis of LANs.

                                                                                                                              • Port name
                                                                                                                                Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).

                                                                                                                                • Eth1 (port1) — The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.

                                                                                                                                • Eth2 (port10) — The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.

                                                                                                                                • CPU (port0) — The internal port to management CPU.

                                                                                                                                • Air (port9) — The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

                                                                                                                              The Internal switch port RMON counters

                                                                                                                              These counters provide a set of Ethernet statistics for frames received on ingress and transmitted on egress.

                                                                                                                              Ingress statistics counters
                                                                                                                              • In good octets
                                                                                                                                The sum of lengths of all good Ethernet frames received, that is frames that are not bad frames.

                                                                                                                              • In bad octets
                                                                                                                                The sum of lengths of all bad Ethernet frames received. Fragments are included.
                                                                                                                                ––––––––––––––––––

                                                                                                                              • In unicasts
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames received that have a Unicast destination MAC address.

                                                                                                                              • In multicasts
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames received that have a Multicast destination MAC address.

                                                                                                                                [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                This does not include frames counted in “In broadcasts” nor does it include frames counted in “In pause”.

                                                                                                                              • In broadcasts
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames received that have a Broadcast destination MAC address.

                                                                                                                              • In pause
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames received that have a Pause destination MAC address (Flow Control frames). This includes Priority Flow Control Pause frames too.
                                                                                                                                ––––––––––––––––––

                                                                                                                              • In undersize
                                                                                                                                Total frames received with a length of less than 64 octets but with a valid FCS.

                                                                                                                              • In oversize
                                                                                                                                Total frames received with a length of more than MaxSize octets but with a valid FCS.

                                                                                                                              • In FCS errors
                                                                                                                                Total frames received with a CRC error not counted in “In fragments”, “In jabber” or “In RX” errors.

                                                                                                                              • In fragments
                                                                                                                                Total frames received with a length of less than 64 octets and an invalid FCS.

                                                                                                                              • In jabber
                                                                                                                                Total frames received with a length of more than MaxSize octets but with an invalid FCS.

                                                                                                                              • In RX errors
                                                                                                                                Total frames received with an RxErr signal from the PHY.
                                                                                                                                ––––––––––––––––––

                                                                                                                              • In discards
                                                                                                                                The number of good, non-filtered frames that are received but cannot be forwarded due to a lack of buffer memory.

                                                                                                                              • In filtered
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames that were not forwarded due to ingress policy filtering rules.

                                                                                                                              • In accepted
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames that are not policy filtered nor discarded due to an error and made it through the Ingress process and is presented to the Queue Controller.

                                                                                                                              • In bad accepted
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames that were not forwarded due to ingress policy filtering rules.

                                                                                                                              • In good AVB A, B
                                                                                                                                The number of good AVB frames received that have a Priority Code Point for Class A (or B) that are not Undersize nor Oversize and are not discarded or filtered.

                                                                                                                              • In bad AVB A, B
                                                                                                                                The number of bad AVB frames received that have a Priority Code Point for Class A (or B) that are not Undersize nor Oversize.

                                                                                                                              • In TCAM 0 … 3
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames received that have a TCAM Hit on a TCAM Entry that has its IncTcamCtr bit set to a one and its FlowID[7:6] = 0 … 3 and are not discarded or filtered. This allows this counter to be used for any purpose as programmed in the TCAM.

                                                                                                                              • In dropped AVB A, B
                                                                                                                                The number of good AVB frames received that have a Priority Code Point for Class A (or B) that are not Undersize nor Oversize and are not discarded or filtered but were not kept by the switch due to a lack of AVB buffer.

                                                                                                                              • In DA unknown
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames received that did not have a Destination Address ‘hit’ from the ATU (i.e., the frame’s DA was not in the address database) and are not discarded or filtered.

                                                                                                                              • In management
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames received that are considered to be Management frames and are not discarded (i.e., the frame’s size is legal and its CRC is good or it was forced good by register. Remote Management frames are counted regardless if the RMU accepted them or not.

                                                                                                                              Egress statistics counters
                                                                                                                              • Out octets
                                                                                                                                The sum of lengths of all Ethernet frames sent from this MAC.

                                                                                                                              • Out FCS errors
                                                                                                                                The number of frames transmitted with an invalid FCS. Whenever a frame is modified during transmission (e.g., to add Out FCS errors or remove a tag) the frame’s original FCS is inspected before a new FCS is added to a modified frame. If the original FCS is invalid, the new FCS is made invalid too and this counter is incremented.
                                                                                                                                ––––––––––––––––––

                                                                                                                              • Out unicasts
                                                                                                                                The number of frames sent that have a Unicast destination MAC address.

                                                                                                                              • Out multicasts
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames sent that have a Multicast destination MAC address.

                                                                                                                                [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                This does not include frames counted in “Out broadcasts” nor does it include frames counted in “Out pause”.

                                                                                                                              • Out broadcasts
                                                                                                                                The number of good frames sent that have a Broadcast destination MAC address.

                                                                                                                              • Out pause
                                                                                                                                The number of Flow Control frames sent. This includes Pause and Priority Flow Control frames.
                                                                                                                                ––––––––––––––––––

                                                                                                                              • Out collisions
                                                                                                                                The number of collision events seen by the MAC not including those counted in “Out Single”, Multiple, Excessive, or Late. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only. See Auto negotiation.

                                                                                                                              • Out deferred
                                                                                                                                The total number of successfully transmitted frames that experienced no collisions but are delayed because the medium was Out deferred busy during the first attempt. This counter is applicable in halfduplex only.

                                                                                                                              • Out single
                                                                                                                                The total number of successfully transmitted frames that experienced exactly one collision. This counter is applicable in halfduplex only.

                                                                                                                              • Out multiple
                                                                                                                                The total number of successfully transmitted frames that experienced more than one collision. This counter is applicable in halfduplex only.

                                                                                                                              • Out late
                                                                                                                                The number of times a collision is detected later than 512 bitstimes into the transmission of a frame. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only.

                                                                                                                              • Out excessive
                                                                                                                                The number frames dropped in the transmit MAC because the frame experienced 16 consecutive collisions. This counter is applicable in half-duplex only.

                                                                                                                              • Out queue 0 … 7
                                                                                                                                The number of frames that egress this port from Queue 0 … 7. It does not matter if these frames had a good CRC or not.

                                                                                                                              • Out cut through
                                                                                                                                The number of frames that egress this port from the Cut Through path. It does not matter if these frames had a good CRC or not nor what the frame’s size was.

                                                                                                                              • Out octets A, B
                                                                                                                                The sum of lengths of all Ethernet frames sent from the AVB Class A (or B) Queue not including frames that are considered Out octets A, B Management by Ingress. The purpose of this counter is to measure the actual used rate of the shaper for stream data. The actual data rate from any queue, AVB or not, can be measured with this counter, however.

                                                                                                                              • Out yellow
                                                                                                                                The number of Yellow frames that egressed this port (i.e., the number of Yellow frames that successfully made it through the queue controller).

                                                                                                                              • Out dropped yellow
                                                                                                                                The number of Yellow frames not counted in “In discards” that are ‘head dropped’ from an egress port’s queues and the number Out dropped yellow of Yellow frame’s ‘tail dropped’ from an egress port’s queues due to Queue Controller’s queue limits.

                                                                                                                              Frame size histogram counters
                                                                                                                              • Size 64 octets
                                                                                                                                Total frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of exactly 64 octets, including those with errors.

                                                                                                                              • Size 65-127 octets
                                                                                                                                Total frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 65 and 127 octets inclusive, including those with errors.

                                                                                                                              • Size 128-255 octets
                                                                                                                                Total frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 128 and 255 octets inclusive, including those with errors.

                                                                                                                              • Size 256-511 octets
                                                                                                                                Total frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 256 and 511 octets inclusive, including those with errors.

                                                                                                                              • Size 512-1023 octets
                                                                                                                                Total frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 512 and 1023 octets inclusive, including those with errors.

                                                                                                                              • Size 1024-max octets
                                                                                                                                Total frames received (and/or transmitted) with a length of between 1024 and MaxSize (see MTU parameter) octets inclusive, including those with errors.

                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                              • Histogram counters mode
                                                                                                                                Frame size histogram counters can count received and/or transmitted octets. The mode of histogram counters is indicated here.

                                                                                                                              • Measure time
                                                                                                                                This is the time interval, the diff column is valid for. The “diff” column shows the difference of the actual value of the counters at the moment of pressing the Difference button and the value of the counters at the moment of pressing the Refresh button.

                                                                                                                              • Refresh, Difference
                                                                                                                                In another way: The Difference counter reference value can be reset by pressing the Refresh button. The time point at which the Difference counter sample is triggered and the “diff” value is calculated is defined by pressing the Difference button. The “total” column always shows the actual values. It is refreshed either by pressing the Refresh and also the Difference button.

                                                                                                                              5.5.1.3. RSTP status

                                                                                                                              This page and RSTP root bridge functionality is available only for FW 1.0.19.0 and earlier.

                                                                                                                              Page allows to check the status of RSTP root bridge daemon. For more information about RSTP and root bridge settings see section 5.5.3. Advanced / RSTP setup.

                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / Status / RSTP status

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.20: Menu Switch settings / Status / RSTP status


                                                                                                                              The page calls CLI command which checks the status of RSTP root bridge daemon (running or not running).

                                                                                                                              5.5.2. Interface

                                                                                                                              5.5.2.1. Port setup

                                                                                                                              Configuration of port settings

                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / Interface / Port

                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.21: Menu Switch settings / Interface / Port


                                                                                                                              • Port name
                                                                                                                                Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).

                                                                                                                                • Eth1 (port1) — The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.

                                                                                                                                • Eth2 (port10) — The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.

                                                                                                                                • CPU (port0) — The internal port to management CPU.

                                                                                                                                • Air (port9) — The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

                                                                                                                              • Label
                                                                                                                                Name of each port on the switch (up to 15 characters).

                                                                                                                                • Port enable
                                                                                                                                  Enables functionality of individual port on the switch. Each port can be enabled or disabled.

                                                                                                                                  [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                                                  When the port is disabled, no communication is possible through this port.

                                                                                                                                  • Auto negotiation
                                                                                                                                    Enables Auto-Negotiation functionality of individual port. Negotiation is an Ethernet procedure by which two connected devices choose common transmission parameters, such as speed, duplex mode and flow control. In this process, the connected devices first share their capabilities regarding these parameters and then choose the highest performance transmission mode they both support.
                                                                                                                                    The device supports three types of Auto-Negotiation:

                                                                                                                                    • 10/100/1000BASE-T Copper Auto-Negotiation. (IEEE 802.3 Clauses 28 and 40)

                                                                                                                                    • 1000BASE-X Fibre Auto-Negotiation (IEEE 802.3 Clause 37)

                                                                                                                                    • SGMII Auto-Negotiation (Cisco specification)


                                                                                                                                    Auto-Negotiation provides a mechanism for transferring information from the local unit to the link partner to establish speed, duplex and Master/Slave preference during a link session.
                                                                                                                                    Auto-Negotiation is initiated upon any of the following conditions:

                                                                                                                                    • Power up reset

                                                                                                                                    • Hardware reset

                                                                                                                                    • Software reset

                                                                                                                                    • Restart Auto-Negotiation

                                                                                                                                    • Transition from power down to power up

                                                                                                                                    • The link goes down


                                                                                                                                    The 10/100/1000BASE-T Auto-Negotiation is based on Clause 28 and 40 of the IEEE 802.3 specification. It is used to negotiate speed, duplex and flow control over CAT5 (or higher) UTP cable. Once Auto-Negotiation is initiated, the device determines whether or not the remote device has Auto-Negotiation capability. If so, the device and the remote device negotiate the speed and duplex with which to operate.
                                                                                                                                    If the remote device does not have Auto-Negotiation capability, the device uses parallel detect function to determine the speed of the remote device for 100BASE-TX and 10BASE-T modes. If a link is established based on the parallel detect function, it is then required to establish the link at half-duplex mode only. Refer to IEEE 802.3 clauses 28 and 40 for a full description of Auto-Negotiation.
                                                                                                                                    1000BASE-X Auto-Negotiation is defined in Clause 37 of the IEEE 802.3 specification. It is used to auto-negotiate duplex and flow control over fibre cable.
                                                                                                                                    If one side of the link enables 1000BASE-X Auto-Negotiation and the link partner does not, the link cannot linkup. The device implements an Auto-Negotiation bypass mode.
                                                                                                                                    SGMII Auto-Negotiation. SGMII is a de-facto standard designed by Cisco. SGMII uses 1000BASE-X coding to send data as well as Auto-Negotiation information. However, the contents of the SGMII Auto-Negotiation are different than the 1000BASE-X Auto-Negotiation.

                                                                                                                                    [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                                                    If one device provides Auto-negotiation and the other works with a manual link parameters setting (i.e. without Auto-negotiation) the link operates in half-duplex mode. If the manual setting is set to full-duplex, the “Out collisions” may occur.

                                                                                                                                    • Speed / duplex
                                                                                                                                      Ethernet link speed and duplex mode can be selected. Both parameters can be either auto negotiated or set manually. When the Auto negotiation parameter is disabled, only manual setting of the speed and duplex is possible. In most cases it is better to enable the auto negotiation and use “auto / auto” speed and duplex settings.
                                                                                                                                      There are two possibilities to force the link to operate in specific speed and duplex:

                                                                                                                                      • Auto negotiation enabled. Select the desired Speed / duplex. The auto negotiation process advertises only this specified link mode. The link partner is asked to use it.

                                                                                                                                      • Auto negotiation disabled. Select the desired Speed / duplex. The link is set to this specified link mode. The link partner has to be set manually to the same mode.

                                                                                                                                    • Frame mode
                                                                                                                                      Ethernet Frame mode control defines the expected Ingress and the generated Egress tagging frame format for this port as follows:

                                                                                                                                      • normal
                                                                                                                                        Normal Network mode uses industry standard IEEE 802.ac Tagged or Untagged frames. Tagged frames use an Ether Type of 0x8100. Ports that are expected to be connected to standard Ethernet devices should use this mode

                                                                                                                                      • DSA
                                                                                                                                        Inactive options are not required.

                                                                                                                                      • provider
                                                                                                                                        Provider mode uses user definable Ether Types per port (see Ether type parameter) to define that a frame is Provider Tagged. Ports that are connected to standard Provider network devices, or devices that use Tagged frames with an Ether Type other than 0x8100 should use this mode.

                                                                                                                                        Frames, that ingress this port with an Ether Type that matches the port’s “Ether Type” parameter will be considered tagged, will have the tag’s VID and PRI bits assigned to the frame (i.e. they will be used for switching and mapping), and will have the Provider Tag removed from the frame. If subsequent Provider Tags are found following the 1st Provider Tag, they too will be removed from the frame with their VID and PRI bits being ignored. Modified frames will be padded if required.

                                                                                                                                        Frames, that ingress this port with an Ether Type that does not match the “Ether Type” parameter will be considered untagged. The ingressing frames are modified so they are ready to egress out Customer ports (Normal Network Frame Mode ports) unmodified.

                                                                                                                                        Frames that egress this port will always have a tag added (even if they were already tagged). The added tag will contain this port’s “Ether Type” as its Ether Type. The PRI bits will be the Frame Priority assigned to the frame during ingress. The VID bits will be the source port’s Default VID bits (if the source port was in Normal Network mode), or the VID assigned to the frame during ingress (if the source port was in Provider mode).

                                                                                                                                      • ether type DSA
                                                                                                                                        Valid only for the “p5 CPU” port.
                                                                                                                                        Ether Type DSA mode uses standard Marvell DSA Tagged frame information following a user definable Ether Type (see Ether type parameter). This mode allows the mixture of Normal Network frames with DSA Tagged frames and is useful on ports that connect to a CPU.
                                                                                                                                        Frames that ingress this port with an Ether Type that matches the port’s “Ether Type” will be considered DSA Tagged and processed accordingly. The frame’s Ether Type and DSA pad bytes will be removed so the resulting frame will be ready to egress out Marvell DSA Tag Mode ports unmodified. Frames that ingress this port with a different Ether Type will be considered Normal Network Frames and processed accordingly.
                                                                                                                                        Marvell DSA Tag control frames that egress this port will always get the port’s “Ether Type” inserted followed by two pad bytes of 0x00 before the DSA Tag. Marvell DSA Tag Forward frames that egress this port can egress just like the control frames (with the added Ether Type and pad) or they can egress as if the port was configured in Normal Network mode. This selection is controlled by the port’s Egress Mode bits above.

                                                                                                                                    • Ether type
                                                                                                                                      Ethernet frame type (often called EtherType) is used to indicate which protocol is encapsulated in the payload of an Ethernet Frame. This parameter is important when one protocol is encapsulated to another protocol.
                                                                                                                                      Examples:

                                                                                                                                       Ether typeStandardComment
                                                                                                                                       0x8100IEEE 802.1qDouble-tagged, Q-in-Q or C-tag stacking on C-tag. C-tag in IEEE 802.1ad frames.
                                                                                                                                       0x88a8IEEE 802.1ad S-Tag
                                                                                                                                       0x88e7IEEE 802.1ahS-Tag (backbone S-Tag)
                                                                                                                                       0x9100It is used very often. For example an old non-standard 802.1QinQ protocol uses this value.
                                                                                                                                      See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EtherType for further details.
                                                                                                                                      • MTU [B]
                                                                                                                                        Defines maximum transmission unit (MTU) frame size allowed to be received or transmitted from or to a given physical port. This implies that a Jumbo frame may be allowed to be received from a given input port but may or may not be allowed to be transmitted out of a port or ports.
                                                                                                                                        The possible values are 1522, 2048 and 10240 Bytes.

                                                                                                                                        [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                        The definition of frame size is counting the frame bytes from MAC_DA through Layer2 CRC of the frame.

                                                                                                                                        • Flow control send/receive (previously TX/RX)
                                                                                                                                          It is the mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on an Ethernet network, so that the receiving node is not overwhelmed with data from transmitting node. It works according IEEE 802.3x standard. If allowed, speed of data receive in to the switch (from the connected device) is regulated by the switch sending out flow control pause frames (according parameter ‘Pause limit out’) to the connected device. If allowed, speed of data transmission out from the switch (to the connected device) is regulated by processing received in flow control pause frames (according parameter ‘Pause limit in’) sent by the connected device.
                                                                                                                                          Enabling flow control allows use of buffers of connected active network elements for leveling uneven flow of user data. For correct operation it is necessary to also enable Flow control on the connected device. Flow control is handled by sending Pause frames to the connected device. Possible values:

                                                                                                                                          • off — Flow control is disabled.

                                                                                                                                          • on — Flow control is enabled (forced to be active).

                                                                                                                                          • auto — Sending pause packets is advertised and depends on result on the auto-negotiation process. Auto-Negotiation has to be supported and enabled on the port to take effect.

                                                                                                                                          [Important]Important

                                                                                                                                          For optimal utilization of Ethernet switch buffers and maximal operational speed of the link it is recommended to upgrade unit to the latest FW version and apply its defaults to ensure optimal buffers cooperation.

                                                                                                                                          [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                          Additional link performance and better utilization of all available buffers in transmitting network could be typically achieved by configuring Flow Control between the MW unit and the nearest switches feeding the link by data. Important for incoming data are parameters ‘Flow Control send’ on ports ‘Eth1(p1)’ and/or ‘Eth2(p10)’, which needs to be set to values ‘auto’ or ‘on’ (the value to use depends on the switch).

                                                                                                                                          FW versions 1.0.16.0 and earlier require RX Flow Control for port ‘Air (p9)’ on both units to be set to ‘on’. The only exception is FW version 1.0.14.0 with activated ‘Unit 24S compatibility’ (for more info see ‘Setting up a link between RAy3-24S and other hardware variant of RAy3-24’ in Chapter 8, Troubleshooting).

                                                                                                                                        • Pause limit in [frame]
                                                                                                                                          Value limits the number of continuous Pause refresh frames that can be received on this port (if full-duplex) or the number of 16 consecutive collisions (if half-duplex). Pause limit in [frame] When a port has flow control enabled, this parameter can be used to limit how long this port can be Paused or Back Pressured off to prevent a port stall through jamming. The Flow Control on the port is (temporarily) disabled when the Pause refresh frames count exceeds the value of this parameter.
                                                                                                                                          Setting this parameter to 0 will allow continuous jamming to be received on this port.

                                                                                                                                          • Pause limit out [frame]
                                                                                                                                            Value limits the number of continuous Pause refresh frames that can be transmitted from this port – assuming each Pause refresh is for the maximum pause time of 65536 slot times. When full-duplex Flow Control is enabled on this port, this parameter is used to limit the number of Pause refresh frames that can be generated from this port to keep this port’s link partner from sending any data.
                                                                                                                                            Clearing this parameter to 0 will allow continuous Pause frame refreshes to egress this port as long as this port remains congested.
                                                                                                                                            Setting this parameter to 1 will allow 1 Pause frame to egress from this port for each congestion situation.
                                                                                                                                            Setting this parameter to 2 will allow up to 2 Pause frames to egress from this port for each congestion situation, etc.

                                                                                                                                            • Ignore checksum
                                                                                                                                              Enables ignoring Frame checksum (FCS) – or in other words – Force good FCS in the frame. When this parameter is not set (default behavior), frames entering this port must have a good CRC or else they are discarded. When this parameter is set, the last four bytes of frames received on this port are overwritten with a good CRC and the frames are accepted by the switch (assuming that the frame’s length is good and it has a destination).

                                                                                                                                              5.5.2.2. PIRL setup

                                                                                                                                              Page allows to configure PIRL – Port-based Ingress Rate Limiter. It is a useful feature to limit bursts and storms of packets according different services, priorities and other network parameters to optimize the usage of limited capacity of RAy wireless link.

                                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / Interface / PIRL

                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.22: Menu Switch settings / Interface / PIRL


                                                                                                                                              The device supports per port TCP/IP ingress rate limiting along with independent Storm prevention. Port based ingress rate limiting accommodates information rates from 64 Kbps to 1 Mbps in increments of 64 Kbps, from 1 Mbps to 100 Mbps in increments of 1 Mbps and from 100 Mbps to 1000 Mbps in increments of 10 Mbps.

                                                                                                                                              In addition to this, the device supports Priority based ingress rate limiting. Given ingress rate resource can be configured to track any of the four priority traffic types. The device supports a color- blind leaky bucket scheme, one of the popular schemes for implementing rate limiting. The way a leaky bucket scheme works is that the bucket drains tokens constantly at a rate called Committed Information Rate (CIR) and the bucket gets replenished with tokens whenever a frame is allowed to go through the bucket. All calculations for this bucket are done in tokens. Therefore, both bucket decrementing and incrementing is performed using tokens (i.e. frame bytes are converted into bucket tokens for calculation purposes).

                                                                                                                                              The traffic below Committed Burst Size limit (CBS Limit) is passed without any further actions. If the traffic burst were to continue and the bucket token depth approaches closer to the Excess Burst Size limit (EBS Limit) by less than the CBS Limit, then a set of actions are specified. Note that if the frame gets discarded then the equivalent number of tokens for that frame will not get added to the bucket.

                                                                                                                                              PIRL EBS and CBS limits

                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.23: PIRL EBS and CBS limits


                                                                                                                                              There are two default ingress limiting rules already configured in the switch default configuration. They limit the maximum allowed ARP traffic coming to the CPU port to 10 Mbps from Eth1 and 10 Mbps from Eth2 ports.

                                                                                                                                              • Port name
                                                                                                                                                Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).

                                                                                                                                                • Eth1 (port1) — The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.

                                                                                                                                                • Eth2 (port10) — The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.

                                                                                                                                                • CPU (port0) — The internal port to management CPU.

                                                                                                                                                • Air (port9) — The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

                                                                                                                                              • ID
                                                                                                                                                Unique ID of ingress rate resource. Each port can be assigned up to five different ingress rate resources.
                                                                                                                                                Each resource defines a rule (filter) for the incoming frame. If the rule is met, the frame is affected (as set by the EBS limit action parameter). If the incoming frame doesn’t meet any rule, it is not affected by PIRL. The frame is accepted and forwarded further to the switch engine.

                                                                                                                                              • Rate [Mbps or fps]
                                                                                                                                                The Bucket Rate. It is dependent on the Bucket Rate factor and the Bucket increment.
                                                                                                                                                The calculation is estimated as the real data throughput depends on frame size. The Accounted bytes parameter affects this as well.
                                                                                                                                                The formula for the rate (in bits or frames per second) is as follows:
                                                                                                                                                rate = α * BRF / BI.
                                                                                                                                                Where α is constant, which is 62 500 000 for Accounted bytes=”frame”, and is 500 000 000 for Accounted bytes=”layer1″. BRF is Bucket Rate factor and BI is Bucket increment.

                                                                                                                                                • Size [kB]
                                                                                                                                                  The Burst allocation buffer size depends on the Bucket increment, the Committed Burst Size limit or the Excess Burst Size limit.
                                                                                                                                                  The formula for the BA is as follows:
                                                                                                                                                  BA = xBS / BI.
                                                                                                                                                  Where xBS can be either the Committed Burst Size limit CBS for the green bucket size or the Excess Burst Size limit EBS for the yellow bucket size and BI is the Bucket increment.
                                                                                                                                                  In order for the rate limiting to be accurate, it is required that bucket size is larger than max frame size (MTU).
                                                                                                                                                  The Burst allocation size should be less than switch internal memory which is 250 kB.

                                                                                                                                                  • Mode
                                                                                                                                                    Rate type or Traffic type of rate limiting. See Bucket type parameter.

                                                                                                                                                  • Edit
                                                                                                                                                    The button opens for selected PIRL resource a new window, where all its parameters can be edited (for details see ‘PIRL resource configuration’).

                                                                                                                                                  • Delete
                                                                                                                                                    The button deletes selected PIRL resource.

                                                                                                                                                  • Add resource
                                                                                                                                                    The button creates a new PIRL resource and opens a new window, where all its parameters can be configured (for details see ‘PIRL resource configuration’).

                                                                                                                                                  5.5.2.3. PIRL resource configuration

                                                                                                                                                  This window opens after pushing button ‘Edit resource’ or ‘Add resource’ on page ‘PIRL’ (for details see above).

                                                                                                                                                  Each port can be assigned up to five different ingress rate resources.

                                                                                                                                                  Each resource defines a rule (filter) for the incoming frame. If the rule is met, the frame is affected (as set by the EBS limit action parameter). If the incoming frame doesn’t meet any rule, it is not affected by PIRL. The frame is accepted and forwarded further to the switch engine.

                                                                                                                                                  Menu Switch settings / Interface / PIRL / Add resource (or Edit resource)

                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 5.24: Menu Switch settings / Interface / PIRL / Add resource (or Edit resource)


                                                                                                                                                  Resource

                                                                                                                                                  Unique identification of added/edited resource. The icon indicates which parameter fields are taken as the unique identifier in the database. Those 2 fields ensure each record is unique and must not be duplicated.

                                                                                                                                                  • Port name, ID
                                                                                                                                                    Both parameters are described above (in section ‘PIRL Setup’).

                                                                                                                                                  Settings

                                                                                                                                                  All parameters of added/edited PIRL resource which can be configured.

                                                                                                                                                  • Rate, Size [Mbps or fps]
                                                                                                                                                    Both parameters are described above (in section ‘PIRL Setup’).

                                                                                                                                                  • Advanced
                                                                                                                                                    (small active text on the right, just below line ‘Size’)
                                                                                                                                                    Allows ‘Advanced configuration’ – more parameters appear.

                                                                                                                                                  • Accounted bytes
                                                                                                                                                    (appears only if ‘Advanced configuration’ is activated)
                                                                                                                                                    This parameter determines which frame bytes are to be accounted for in the rate resource’s rate limiting calculations.
                                                                                                                                                    There are four different supported configurations:

                                                                                                                                                    • Frame — Frame based configures the rate limiting resource to account for the number of frames from a given port mapped to this rate resource.

                                                                                                                                                    • layer 1 — Preamble (8bytes) + Frame’s DA to CRC + IFG (inter frame gap, 12 bytes)

                                                                                                                                                    • layer 2 — Frame’s DA to CRC

                                                                                                                                                    • layer 3 — Frame’s DA to CRC – 18 – 4 (if the frame is tagged)

                                                                                                                                                    A frame is considered tagged if it is either Customer of Provider tagged during ingress.

                                                                                                                                                    • Bucket increment
                                                                                                                                                      (appears only if ‘Advanced configuration’ is activated)
                                                                                                                                                      Bucket increment (BI) indicates the amount of tokens that need to be added for each byte of the incoming frame.

                                                                                                                                                      • Rate factor
                                                                                                                                                        (appears only if ‘Advanced configuration’ is activated)
                                                                                                                                                        This is a bucket factor (green or yellow) which determines the amount of tokens that need to be decremented for each rate resource decrement (which is done periodically based on the Committed Information Rate).

                                                                                                                                                        • Limit CBS/EBS
                                                                                                                                                          (appears only if ‘Advanced configuration’ is activated)
                                                                                                                                                          Excess Burst Size limit – used for the yellow bucket.
                                                                                                                                                          Committed Burst Size limit – used for the green bucket.

                                                                                                                                                          • Color mode
                                                                                                                                                            (appears only if ‘Advanced configuration’ is activated)
                                                                                                                                                            Indication of the current color mode. Possible values: Single rate two color, Single rate three color, Dual rate three color.

                                                                                                                                                            • Account green overflow
                                                                                                                                                              false = Green and Yellow buckets are isolated when in Color Aware mode
                                                                                                                                                              true = Green and Yellow buckets are connected when in Color Aware mode

                                                                                                                                                              • Account discarded frames
                                                                                                                                                                This parameter decides whether the ingress rate limiting logic accounts for frames that have been discarded by the queue controller due to output port queue congestion reasons. To account for all frames coming into a given port associated with this rate resource, this parameter needs to be set.

                                                                                                                                                                • Account filtered frames
                                                                                                                                                                  This parameter decides whether the ingress rate limiting logic accounts for frames that have been discarded because of ingress policy violations. To account for all frames coming into a given port associated with this rate resource, this parameter needs to be set.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Color aware
                                                                                                                                                                    false = color blind mode
                                                                                                                                                                    true = color aware mode

                                                                                                                                                                    • EBS limit action
                                                                                                                                                                      This parameter controls what kind of action is performed when the EBS limit has been exceeded. Two types of action can be selected:

                                                                                                                                                                      • drop — The frame that was received on the port will get discarded.

                                                                                                                                                                      • flow control — The frame that was received on the port will get discarded.
                                                                                                                                                                        In this mode an Ethernet flow control frame gets generated (if the flow control is enabled for that port) and sent to the source port but the incoming frame gets passed through the rate resource. If the port is operating in half-duplex mode then the port gets jammed.


                                                                                                                                                                      Flow control mode is expected to be programmed on ports that have a trusted flow control mechanism available. The EBS limit action is a per-port characteristic. If a port has multiple rate resource buckets then all buckets enabled are expected to be programmed with the same EBS limit action.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Flow control de-assertion
                                                                                                                                                                        This parameter controls the flow control de-assertion when EBS limit action is set to generate a flow control message. There are two modes available:

                                                                                                                                                                        • empty — Flow control gets de-asserted only when the ingress rate resource has become empty.

                                                                                                                                                                        • CBS limit — Flow control gets de-asserted when the ingress rate resource has enough room to accept at least one frame of size specified by the CBS limit.
                                                                                                                                                                          For example, if the CBS limit is programmed to be 2k Bytes, then the flow control will get de-asserted if there is at least 2k Bytes worth of tokens available in the ingress rate resource.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Mask operation
                                                                                                                                                                        This parameter controls whether an ingress frame must meet both Priority and Frame type requirements to be counted for ingress rate calculations or if meeting only one requirement is sufficient to be counted for ingress rate calculations for this rate resource.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Priority type
                                                                                                                                                                          frame – use FPri assigned to the frame
                                                                                                                                                                          queue – use QPri assigned to the frame

                                                                                                                                                                          • Priority
                                                                                                                                                                            Any combinations of the eight queue priorities can be selected. Frames with marked priority are accounted for in this ingress rate resource.
                                                                                                                                                                            If there is no priority selected, priority of the frame does not have any affect on the ingress rate limiting calculations done for this ingress rate resource.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Frame type
                                                                                                                                                                              Any of the following frame types can be selected to be tracked as part of the rate resource calculations:
                                                                                                                                                                              Unknown unicasts, Unknown multicasts, Unknown broadcast, Multicasts/Broadcasts, Unicasts, Network management, ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), TCP data, TCP control, UDP, group IGMP, ICMP, GRE, IGRP and L2TP covers Non-TCPUDP, Ingress monitor source, Policy mirror, Policy trap.
                                                                                                                                                                              More than one frame type can be selected for a given rate resource.

                                                                                                                                                                              5.5.2.4. Egress queues setup

                                                                                                                                                                              The Egress queue page allows to set parameters for four output (egress) queues available in internal Ethernet switch of RAy unit.

                                                                                                                                                                              Each queue is used to store frames with given priority (as set in 802.1p and DSCP configuration). The queue depth is controlled dynamically to reach maximum utilization of the switch memory. The queue frame egress is controlled by scheduling algorithms as described further below.

                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / Interface / Egress queue

                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.25: Menu Switch settings / Interface / Egress queue


                                                                                                                                                                              • Port name
                                                                                                                                                                                Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).

                                                                                                                                                                                • Eth1 (port1) — The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Eth2 (port10) — The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.

                                                                                                                                                                                • CPU (port0) — The internal port to management CPU.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Air (port9) — The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Scheduling mode
                                                                                                                                                                                Port’s Scheduling mode.
                                                                                                                                                                                The device supports strict priority, weighted round robin, or a mixture on a per egress port selection basis.
                                                                                                                                                                                In the strict priority scheme all top priority frames egress for a port until that priority’s queue is empty, then the next lower priority queue’s frames egress, etc. This approach can cause the lower priorities to be starved out preventing them from transmitting any frames but also ensures that all high priority frames egress the switch as soon as possible.
                                                                                                                                                                                In the weighted scheme an 8, 4, 2, 1 weighting is applied to the four priorities unless an alternate weighting is programmed into the QoS Weights Table. This approach prevents the lower priority frames from being starved out with only a slight delay to the higher priority frames.
                                                                                                                                                                                Some applications may require the top priority queue, or the top two priority queues to be in a fixed priority mode while the lower queues work in the weighted approach. All scheduling modes are selectable on a per port basis.
                                                                                                                                                                                The port scheduling mode can be one of the following values:

                                                                                                                                                                                • weighted RRB — Use a weighted round robin queuing scheme.

                                                                                                                                                                                • strict pri 3 — Use Strict for priority 3 and use weighted round robin for priorities 2,1 and 0.

                                                                                                                                                                                • strict pri 3, 2 — Use Strict for priorities 3 and 2 and use weighted round robin for priorities 1 and 0.

                                                                                                                                                                                • strict — Use a Strict priority scheme for all priorities.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Count mode
                                                                                                                                                                                Egress rate limiting count mode. This parameter is used to control which bytes in the transmitted frames are counted for egress rate limiting as follows:

                                                                                                                                                                                • frame — The egress rate limiting is done based on frame count [fps] as opposed to the byte count [kbps] of the packet.

                                                                                                                                                                                • layer 1 — Preamble (8bytes) + Frame’s DA to CRC + IFG (inter frame gap, 12 bytes)

                                                                                                                                                                                • layer 2 — Frame’s DA to CRC

                                                                                                                                                                                • layer 3 — Frame’s DA to CRC – 18 – 4 (if the frame is tagged)

                                                                                                                                                                                Only one tag is counted even if the frame contains more than one tag. A frame is considered tagged if the egress frame going out onto the wire is tagged.

                                                                                                                                                                                • Rate limit
                                                                                                                                                                                  Egress data rate shaping. When Rate = 0 egress rate limiting is disabled.

                                                                                                                                                                                  [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                  The Count mode parameter is used to control which bytes in the transmitted frames are counted for egress rate limiting.

                                                                                                                                                                                  If the egress shaping is controlled by frame rate, the desired frame rate can vary from 7.6k to 1.488M frames per second. Valid values are between 7632 and 1488000.
                                                                                                                                                                                  If the egress shaping is controlled by bit rate, the desired rate can vary from 64 kbps to 1 Gbps in the following increments:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Desired rate between 64 kbps and 1 Mbps in increments of 64 kbps

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Desired rate between 1 Mbps to 100 Mbps in increments of 1 Mbps

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Desired rate between 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps in increments of 10 Mbps


                                                                                                                                                                                  Therefore, the valid values are:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • 64, 128, 192, 256, 320, 384,…, 960,

                                                                                                                                                                                  • 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, …, 100000,

                                                                                                                                                                                  • 110000, 120000, 130000, …, 1000000.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Frame overhead [B]
                                                                                                                                                                                    This parameter is used to adjust the number of bytes that need to be added to a frame’s IFG (inter frame gap) on a per frame basis. This is to compensate for a protocol mismatch between the sending and the receiving stations. For example, if the receiving station were to add more encapsulations to the frame for the nodes further downstream, this per frame adjustment would help reduce the congestion in the receiving station.
                                                                                                                                                                                    This adjustment, if enabled, is added to the Egress Rate Control’s calculated transmitted byte count meaning Egress Rate Control must be enabled for this Frame Overhead adjustment to work.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Weight table
                                                                                                                                                                                      The weighted round robin alternate weighting can be defined here. The sequence of the output queue numbers (0,1,2 to 7) defines the sequence of the output queue frame egressing. This sequence can be up to 128 items long.

                                                                                                                                                                                      5.5.3. QoS

                                                                                                                                                                                      Quality of Service (QoS) is the ability to provide different priorities to different applications, users, or data flows, or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow. QoS using 802.1p and DSCP are implemented.

                                                                                                                                                                                      The ingress block has the task of determining the priority of each frame to be used for the internal Queue Controller (QPri) as well as the priority assigned to the frame (FPri) if the frame egresses the switch tagged. The classification as to if the frame is discard eligible (Yellow) is also determined. The Ingress block does not perform the QoS switching policy, which is the task of the Queue Controller. Instead, it has the job of determining the QPri and FPri assigned to each frame for the Queue Controller and Egress block.

                                                                                                                                                                                      5.5.3.1. Port

                                                                                                                                                                                      Port based QoS parameters makes it possible to control QoS based on the ingress port.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Every frame entering the switch gets two priority values assigned to it. One priority value is used inside the switch only to determine which output queue the frame is to be mapped into. This is called QPri for queue priority. The other priority value is used outside the switch only to mark the frame’s IEEE PCP bits if the frame egresses a port tagged. This is called FPri for frame priority. A third parameter, called Yellow, is also assigned to the frame. If Yellow=1 the frame is considered eligible for discard if congestion warrants it.

                                                                                                                                                                                      The initial QPri, FPri and Yellow values are assigned differently to various frame types. Some frames are assigned more than one set of QPri, FPri and Yellow values. For example, an IEEE tagged IPv4 frame will get a set of values from the IEEE tag, another set from the IPv4 header and another set from the port. Some applications require that the port’s default priority be used regardless of the contents of the frame. The Initial priority parameter selects this default priority.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Menu Switch settings / QoS / Port

                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig. 5.26: Menu Switch settings / QoS / Port


                                                                                                                                                                                        • Update DSCP
                                                                                                                                                                                          If the parameter is enabled, the DSCP field in frames that egress this port is updated.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Default frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                            All ingressing frames are assigned a default FPri (frame priority) and QPri (queue priority). The default value for Yellow is zero (i.e. the frame is not discarded eligible).

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Default queue priority
                                                                                                                                                                                              All ingressing frames are assigned a default FPri (frame priority) and QPri (queue priority).

                                                                                                                                                                                              5.5.3.2. 802.1p ingress

                                                                                                                                                                                              The IEEE 802.1p QoS technique also known as class of service (CoS), is using a 3-bit field called the Priority Code Point (PCP) within an Ethernet frame header when using VLAN tagged frames as defined by IEEE 802.1Q. It specifies a priority value of between 0 and 7 inclusive that can be used by QoS disciplines to differentiate traffic. The value 0 is generally taken as the lowest priority and 7 as the highest priority.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / QoS / 802.1p ingress

                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.27: Menu Switch settings / QoS / 802.1p ingress


                                                                                                                                                                                              • Priority code point (PCP)
                                                                                                                                                                                                Priority Code Point (PCP) value to which the following parameters (Yellow, Frame Enable, Frame Priority, Queue Enable and Queue Priority) belong to.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • 802.1p yellow
                                                                                                                                                                                                When this parameter is enabled any IEEE tagged frame (having given PCP priority) that accesses this port will be given an initial IEEE color of Yellow. This color will be assigned to the frame using the same rules used to select the frame’s initial FPri and QPri values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Enable 802.1p frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                  When the Frame Enable parameter is checked, the Frame Priority (FPri) mapping is enabled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • 802.1p frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Frame Priority value is taken as the frame’s initial IEEE FPri in case the Frame Enable is checked.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enable 802.1p queue priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                      When the Queue Enable parameter is checked, the Queue Priority (QPri) mapping is enabled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • 802.1p queue priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Queue Priority value is taken as the frame’s initial IEEE QPri in case the Queue Enable is checked.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.5.3.3. 802.1p egress

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Menu Switch settings / QoS / 802.1p ingress

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig. 5.28: Menu Switch settings / QoS / 802.1p ingress


                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Frame priority for 802.1p mapping
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Frame priority value to which the following Green and Yellow parameters (VID marking, PCP marking and PCP) belong to.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • VID marking
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Enable/disable VID marking for the given Frame priority. When the parameter is disabled frames assigned with this FPri in ingress will not get their VID field updated even if the frame egresses Tagged (normally all egressing Tagged frames get their VID updated to the value assigned in ingress).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • PCP marking
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Enable/disable PCP marking for the given Frame priority. When the parameter is disabled frames assigned with this FPri in ingress will not get their PCP & CFI fields updated even if the frame egresses Tagged (normally all egressing Tagged frames get their FPri & CFI bits updated to the value assigned in ingress).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 802.1p frame PCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Frame Priority Code Point. This parameter contains the new PCP or FPri value that is assigned to frames that egress this port. The FPri assigned to the frame in ingress is used to access this table.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.5.3.4. DSCP ingress

                                                                                                                                                                                                              The DSCP stands for Differentiated services Code Point which is a 6-bit value stored within the IP header. The QoS techniques using those bits are called DiffServ or Differentiated services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / QoS / DSCP ingress

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.29: Menu Switch settings / QoS / DSCP ingress


                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DSCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                DSCP value to which the following parameters (Yellow, Frame Enable, Frame Priority, Queue Enable and Queue Priority) belong to.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DSCP Yellow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                When this parameter is enabled any IP frame that accesses this entry will be given an initial IP color of Yellow. This color will be assigned to the frame using the same rules to select the frame’s initial FPri and QPri values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Enable DSCP frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  When this parameter is enabled, the Frame Priority Mapping will be used.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DSCP frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The value set in this parameter is used as the frame’s initial IP Frame priority as long as Enable is checked.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enable DSCP queue priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      When this parameter is enabled, the queue Priority mapping will be used.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DSCP queue priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The value set in this parameter is used as the frame’s initial IP Queue priority as long as Enable is checked.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.5.3.5. DSCP egress

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Menu Switch settings / QoS / DSCP egress

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig. 5.30: Menu Switch settings / QoS / DSCP egress


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Port name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Selects the port on Eth switch for which settings below are shown/updated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Frame priority value for DSCP mapping to which the following Green and Yellow parameters (DSCP marking and DSCP) belong to.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DSCP marking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          When this parameter is enabled for some Frame priority, the Frame Priority Mapping will be used, i.e. IP frames assigned with this FPRi in ingress will get their DSCP fields updated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DSCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This parameter defines the new DSCP value that is assigned to frames that egress this port. The FPri assigned to the frame in ingress is used to access this table.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.5.4. Advanced

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.5.4.1. VLAN setup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The VLAN (Virtual LAN) page allows to set VLAN related and global parameters needed for VLAN functionality of RAy unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [Important]Important

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Parameters in VLAN page are tightly related to the settings configured in pages STU and VTU. For a proper functionality all parameters inside pages VLAN, STU and VTU have to correspond to each other.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Menu Switch settings / Advanced / VLAN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fig. 5.31: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / VLAN


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Global
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Remove one provider tag
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When this parameter is enabled and a port is configured as a Provider Port, recursive Provider Tag stripping will NOT be performed. Only the first Provider Tag found on the frame will be extracted and removed. Its extracted data will be used for switching.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When this parameter is disabled and a port is configured as a Provider Port, recursive Provider Tag stripping will be performed. The first Provider Tag’s data will be extracted and used for switching, and then all subsequent Provider Tags found in the frame will also be removed. This will only occur if the port’s “Ether type” is not 0x8100 (recursive Provider Tag removal cannot be performed when the Provider’s Ether Type is equal to 0x8100).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • VTU page mode
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The VTU page mode supports alternate VID look up results based on if a frame is a Multicast (including Broadcasts) or not, or based on what source port the frame came in on, or if the frame was properly Provider tagged or not.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ports settings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Port name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Eth1 (port1) — The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Eth2 (port10) — The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • CPU (port0) — The internal port to management CPU.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Air (port9) — The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Egress mode
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This parameter determines the makeup of frames when they egress this port. The Egress mode behavior is affected by the Frame mode (menu Interface/Port advanced/Frame mode) parameter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Frame mode … normal:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • unmodify — Frames are transmitted unmodified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • untag — Remove the tag from any tagged frame.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • tag — Add a tag (e.g. according to “Default VID”) to any untagged frame. Ethernet frame type is set to 0x8100.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Frame mode … provider:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • unmodify — Use this mode when “Frame mode” is set to “provider”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • untag — not used

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • tag — not used


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Frame mode … ether type DSA:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • unmodify — not used

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • untag — not used

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • tag — not used

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ether type tag — Add a tag (e.g. according to “Default VID”) to any untagged frame. Ethernet frame type is set according to “Ether type” parameter (menu Switch settings/Interface/Port advanced).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • 802.1q mode
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This parameter determines if 802.1q base VLANs are used along with port based VLANs for this Ingress port. It also determines the action to be taken if an 802.1q VLAN Violation is detected. VLAN barriers (both port based and 802.1q based) can be bypassed by VLAN Tunnel.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • disabled — Use Port Based VLANs only. The VID assigned to the frame is the port’s Default VID which is used as the VID in the Provider Tag if the frame egresses a Provider port.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • fallback — Enable 802.1q for this Ingress port. Do not discard Ingress Membership violations and use the VLAN Table bits if the frames’ VID is not contained in the VTU.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The ingressing frames are not discarded and it doesn’t matter if the frames’ VID is a member of the VTU.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • check — Enable 802.1q for this Ingress port. Do not discard Ingress Membership violation but discard the frame if its VID is not contained in the VTU.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The ingressing frames’ VID must be configured in the VTU to enable it to ingress. The VTU “Member tag” parameter doesn’t have any effect.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • secure — Enable 802.1q for this Ingress port. Discard Ingress Membership violations and discard frames whose VID is not contained in the VTU.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The ingressing frame is checked fully against the record in the VTU table. The “VID” and the “Member tag” parameters are validated to allow the frame to ingress.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Discard tagged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      When this parameter is enabled all non-MGMT frames that are processed as tagged are discarded as they enter this switch port. Priority only tagged frames (with a VID of 0x000) are considered untagged. This feature works whether 802.1q is enabled on the port or not.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      If the port is configured in Provide Mode and this parameter is enabled, frames that contain an Ether Type that matches the port’s PortEType (“Ether type” parameter) that have a non-zero VID will be discarded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Discard untagged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        When this parameter is enabled all non-MGMT frames that are processed as untagged are discarded as they enter this switch port. Priority only tagged frames (with a VID of 0x000) are considered untagged. This feature works if 802.1q is enabled on the port or not.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If the port is configured in Provide Mode and this parameter is enabled, frames that don’t contain an Ether Type that matches the port’s PortEType (“Ether type” parameter) that have a non-zero VID will be discarded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • VTU priority override
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          When this parameter is set to anything other than “none”, VTU priority overrides can occur on this port. A VTU priority override occurs when the determined VID of a frame results in a VID whose “Use VID priority” parameter is enabled. When this occurs three (other than “none”) forms of priority overrides are possible:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • none — Normal frame priority processing occurs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • frame — The “VID priority” value assigned to the frame’s VID (in the VLAN database) is used to overwrite the frame’s previously determined FPri (frame priority). If the frame egresses tagged the priority in the frame will be this new “VID priority” value – the frame is permanently modified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • queue — The “VID priority” value assigned to the frame’s VID (in the VLAN database) is used to overwrite the frame’s previously determined QPri (queue priority). The QPri is used internally to map the frame to one of the egress queues inside the switch. QPri override will not affect the contents of the frame in any way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • frame + queue — Both the above overrides take place on the frame.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The VTU Priority override has higher priority than the port’s Default Priority and the frame’s IEEE and/or IP priorities. The priority determined by the frames’ VID can however be overridden by the frames’ SA and/or DA Priority Overrides.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • VTU page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When “VTU page mode” is set to value “port” this setting is used to determine which VTU page is used for frames ingressing this port. This supports different VTU lookup results for the same VID based on the value of this bit and allows Core ports to use one set of VTU values while Edge ports use a different set.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Force default VID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Force to use Default VID. When 802.1q is enabled on this port and this parameter is enabled, all Ingress frame’s VID are ignored and the “Default VID” is assigned and replaced into the frame (if the frame egresses tagged). When this parameter is disabled all IEEE802.3ac Tagged frames with a non-zero VID use the frame’s VID unmodified.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When 802.1q is disabled on this port, this bit has no effect.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • VID 0 enable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                When this bit is cleared to a zero normal network switching occurs (i.e., a frame received with a VID of 0x000 will get an initial VID assignment from the Port’s Default VID from Port offset 0x07). When this bit is set to a one frames received with a VID of 0x000 will NOT get an initial VID assignment from the port’s Default VID – it will get an initial VID assignment value of 0x000 instead.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Default VID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Default VLAN Identifier. When 802.1q is enabled on this port the Default VID parameter is used as the IEEE Tagged VID added to untagged or priority tagged frames during egress that ingressed from this port. It is also used as a tagged frame’s VID if the frame’s VID was 0x000 (i.e., it is a priority tagged frame) or if the port’s “Force Default VID” is enabled.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  When 802.1q is disabled on this port, the Default VID field is assigned to all frames entering the port (whether tagged or untagged). This assignment is used internal to the switch.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • FID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Port’s Default Filtering Information Database (FID). This parameter can be used with non-overlapping VLANs to keep each VLAN’s MAC address mapping database separate from the other VLANs. This allows the same MAC address to appear multiple times in the address database (at most one-time per VLAN) with a different port mapping per entry. This field is overridden by the FID returned from a VTU hit and it should be zero if not used. It must be a unique number for each independent, non-overlapping, address database if used.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • VLAN tunnel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      When this parameter is disabled, the port based VLANs defined in the VLAN Table, 802.1q VLANs defined in the VTU and Trunk Masking are enforced for ALL frames.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      When this parameter is enabled, the port based VLAN Table masking, 802.1q VLAN membership masking and the Trunk Masking are bypassed for any frame entering this port with a DA that is currently ‘static’ in the ATU. This applies to unicast as well as multicast frames.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      While enabled, the Unicast frames with the management CPU DA can go from the Eth1 and Eth2 ports in to the CPU port. The static record with the CPU DA in the ATU table has to be configured (it is pre-configured by default).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Member (VLAN Table)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The In Chip Port based VLAN Table contains parameters used to restrict the output ports to which an input port can send frames.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        These parameters (VLAN Table bits) are used for all frames, except for MGMT frames, even if 802.1q is enabled on this port. These parameters restrict where a port can send frames to (unless a VLANTunnel frame is being received). If ForceMap (Learning) is enabled, these parameters indicate which port or ports all frames that ingress this port are sent to overriding the mapping from the address database.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The default setting prevents sending frames from Eth1 to Eth2 and vice versa. This is very important for separating different networks (e.g. different customers) connected to separate user ports.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The parameter Link authorization guard (from menu Link Settings / Service access /Services) affects the user data flow through the Air channel. When the Link authorization guard is enabled, the user Ethernet ports to Air port connection control is disabled. Parameter status of user Ethernet to Air port connection changes dynamically according to Link authorization status.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.5.4.2. STU setup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The STU (Spanning Tree Unit) is related to VLAN functionality (pages STU, VTU and VLAN has to correspond to each other). The per VLAN STU in the device supports user commands to access and modify the contents of the Port State database.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Menu Switch settings / Advanced / STU

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fig. 5.32: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / STU


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • SID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            VTU 802.1s (MSTP) Port State Information Database number. This parameter indicates the SID number that is associated with the 802.1s “Port state” parameter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It is essential to define the SID to be able to create records in the VTU (VLAN Table).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Label
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A custom string label for a STU entry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Port state (for ports Eth1, Eth2, CPU and Air)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This parameter is used to support 802.1s per VLAN spanning tree. Port states are valid for frames with a VID that is associated to this SID:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • disabled — Use non-VLAN Port States (i.e., the port’s default Port State) for this port.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • blocking/listening

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • learning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • forwarding

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This “Eth port state” takes precedence over the port’s Port State bits unless the port’s Port State (driven by STP) is Disabled (which prevents all frames from flowing).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Add entry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Creates a new STU database entry. New window is opened to allow to enter values to each field (see their meanings above). The ‘Primary key icon’ indicates which parameter field is taken as the unique identifier in the database. This field entry ensures each record is unique and must not be duplicated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Menu Switch settings / Advanced / STU / Add Entry (or Edit Entry or Copy Entry)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fig. 5.33: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / STU / Add Entry (or Edit Entry or Copy Entry)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Edit/Copy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Opens the configuration dialog for the selected STU database record. New window is opened to allow to modify values of each field (for layout and values see the explanation for ‘Add entry’ button).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Should the Primary key value be modified, the “other” record – identified by the entered Primary key – is added (if it does not exist yet) or modified (if it exists already).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Delete
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Deletes the selected STU database record.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.5.4.3. VTU setup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The VTU (VLAN Table Unit) is related to VLAN functionality (pages STU, VTU and VLAN has to correspond to each other). Its records form the VLAN Table.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Menu Switch settings / Advanced / VTU

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fig. 5.34: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / VTU


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      To be implemented yet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • VID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      VLAN ID. This parameter indicates the VID number that is associated with the Member tag, VTU Priority, VTU policy and the FID (Forwarding Information Database number).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Label
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A custom string label for a VTU entry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • FID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Forwarding Information Database number. If separate address databases are used, this parameter indicates the address database number to use for all frames assigned with this VID. All MAC DA look-ups and SA learning will refer to the address database number defined by the FID associated with the frame’s VID. Multiple VID’s can use the same FID. If separate address databases are not used, the FID must be zero. The ATU database records are joined with the VTU database records via this number.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • SID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            802.1s Information Database Number. If 802.1s per VLAN spanning tree is being used, this parameter indicate the spanning tree instance number to use for all frames assigned with this VID. Multiple VID’s can use the same SID. The STU database records are joined with the VTU database records via this number.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Indicates status of parameters ‘VID Frame Priority’ and ‘VID Queue Priority’ (see their explanation below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • VID frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (appears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy VTU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              VID Frame Priority Use. This parameter is used to indicate that frames assigned with this VID can have their priority overridden with the “VID priority” value (see below) if the port’s “VTU priority override” parameters is enabled to do so. See “VTU priority override” for more details.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              VID Priority override value when enabled by the “Use VID priority” parameter (see above). Used for priority override on ingressing frames. Enabling a priority on a VID will override the frame’s priority only if the port’s “VTU priority override” parameter is enabled to do so.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • VID queue priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (appears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy VTU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VID Queue Priority Use. This parameter is used to indicate that frames assigned with this VID can have their priority overridden with the “VID priority” value (see below) if the port’s “VTU priority override” parameters is enabled to do so. See “VTU priority override” for more details.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VID Priority override value when enabled by the “Use VID priority” parameter (see above). Used for priority override on ingressing frames. Enabling a priority on a VID will override the frame’s priority only if the port’s “VTU priority override” parameter is enabled to do so.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Policy or VID policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (‘VID policy’ appears in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy VTU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This parameter is used to indicate that frames assigned with this VID can have Layer 2 Policy actions applied to it if the port’s “Policy VTU” (menu Advanced/Monitoring, Policy/Policy) is enabled to do so.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Don’t learn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (appears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy VTU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    To be implemented yet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Filter UC/BC/MC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (appears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy VTU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      To be implemented yet

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Member tag (for ports Eth1, Eth2, CPU and Air)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This parameter is used to indicate which ports are members of the VLAN (i.e., with the given VID) and if these VLANs frames should be tagged or untagged, or unmodified when exiting the port as follows:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • egress unmodified — Port is a member of this VLAN and frames are to egress unmodified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • egress untagged — Port is a member of this VLAN and frames are to egress Untagged.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • egress tagged — Port is a member of this VLAN and frames are to egress Tagged.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • not member — Port is not a member of this VLAN. The result is that frames assigned with this VID cannot egress this port.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This parameter takes effect only if the “802.1q mode” parameter (see menu Advanced/VLAN) is set to “secure” mode.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Add entry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Creates a new VTU database entry. New window is opened to allow to enter values to each field (see their meanings above). The ‘Primary key icon’ indicates which parameter field is taken as the unique identifier in the database. This field entry ensures each record is unique and must not be duplicated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Menu Switch settings / Advanced / VTU / Add Entry (or Edit Entry or Copy Entry)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig. 5.35: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / VTU / Add Entry (or Edit Entry or Copy Entry)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Edit/Copy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Opens the configuration dialog for the selected VTU database record. New window is opened to allow to modify values of each field (for layout and values see the explanation for ‘Add entry’ button).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Should the Primary key value be modified, the “other” record – identified by the entered Primary key – is added (if it does not exist yet) or modified (if it exists already).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Delete
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Deletes the selected VTU database record.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Flush all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Deletes the whole VTU database.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.5.4.4. ATU setup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Address Translation Unit (ATU) in the device supports user commands to access the contents of the MAC address database.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is one static record which cannot be deleted. This is the management CPU record. The unicast frames directed to management are allowed to access the CPU port. The “VLAN tunnel” parameter is also used to enable the AP frames to access the CPU port.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Switch settings / Advanced / ATU

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.36: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / ATU


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • FID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Forwarding Information Database number. If multiple address databases are not being used, this parameter must remain zero. If multiple address databases are being used, this parameter is used to set the desired address database number that is to be associated with this ATU Entry’s MAC Address. When frames ingress the switch, the VID assigned to the frame is used to access the VTU. The VTU returns the FID associated with that VID for MAC address lookups in to the ATU.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • MAC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MAC address associated with this ATU entry in the database number defined by the FID.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Label
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A custom string label for a STU entry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Entry state
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Entry state parameter is used to determine the entry’s age or its type as follows:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • static — Use for ordinary static entry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • static policy — Use for “Policy DA” and/or “Policy SA” (menu Advanced/Monitoring/Policy).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • static non rate limiting — Use for “SA non rate limit” and/or “DA non rate limit” (menu Interface/PIRL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • static management — This value is used for the mapping of the DA even if the “DA mapping” parameter is disabled (menu Advanced/ATU settings).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • dynamic — ordinary dynamic entry.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Shows the actual MAC priority settings (for explanation see items ‘Use MAC priority’, ‘MAC frame priority’ and ‘MAC queue priority’ below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Use MAC priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (appears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy ATU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Use this parameter to enable the “MAC priority” (see “MAC priority” description).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • MAC frame priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (appears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy ATU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The MAC’s Frame Priority override value when enabled by the “Use MAC priority” parameter. Used for priority override on ingressing frames. Enabling a priority on a MGMT MAC address will override all priorities for these MGMT frames. Enabling a priority on a static, non-MGMT MAC address, will only override the frame’s priority if the port’s “DA priority override” or “SA priority override” parameters are enabled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MAC queue priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (spears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy ATU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The MAC’s Queue Priority override value when enabled by the “Use MAC priority” parameter. Used for priority override on ingressing frames. Enabling a priority on a MGMT MAC address will override all priorities for these MGMT frames. Enabling a priority on a static, non-MGMT MAC address, will only override the frame’s priority if the port’s “DA priority override” or “SA priority override” parameters are enabled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Destination type
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Shows the actual settings of port association, trunks, etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Trunk member
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (spears only in windows ‘Add/Edit/Copy ATU entry’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When this parameter is enabled, the MAC address is a member of a trunk – according to the “Trunk ID” parameter. When this parameter is disabled, the MAC address is associated with port(s) – according to the “Port association” parameter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Trunk ID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Trunk ID associated with this MAC address.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The port or ports that this DA MAC address is associated with is determined by the “Port association” parameter below.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Use this parameter to ensure the proper unit management CPU is accessed when two units are connected in trunk.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Port association (for ports ETH1, ETH2, CPU and Air)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mask of ports associated with this MAC address.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Add entry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Creates a new ATU database entry. New window is opened to allow to enter values to each field (see their meanings above). The ‘Primary key icon’ indicates which parameter field is taken as the unique identifier in the database. This field entry ensures each record is unique and must not be duplicated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Menu Switch settings / Advanced / ATU / Add Entry (or Edit Entry or Copy Entry)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 5.37: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / ATU / Add Entry (or Edit Entry or Copy Entry)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Edit/Copy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Opens the configuration dialog for the selected VTU database record. New window is opened to allow to modify values of each field (for layout and values see Fig. 5.37, “Menu Switch settings / Advanced / ATU / Add Entry (or Edit Entry or Copy Entry)” above and for the description the explanation for Add entry button).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Should the Primary key value be modified, the “other” record – identified by the entered Primary key – is added (if it does not exist yet) or modified (if it exists already).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Delete
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Deletes the selected ATU database record.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Flush all and use default
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Deletes the whole ATU database and create default record(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Flush non-static
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Delete all but static ATU database records.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.5.4.5. RSTP setup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This page and related RSTP root bridge functionality is available only for FW 1.0.19.0 and earlier.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Page allows to configure RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol by IEEE 802.1w) root bridge. RSTP provides significantly faster recovery in response to network changes or failures, introducing new convergence behaviors and bridge port roles to do this. RSTP root bridge configuration on RAy make sense only for RAy configurations with both Ethernet ports used and only for network segments without its own Ethernet bridge or router. Because it is very rarely used (if ever) and its wrong usage may cause a lot of network troubles, the functionality was removed in FW release 1.0.20.0. For more information about RSTP, STP, related Path cost, etc. see Spanning_Tree_Protocol.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Menu Switch settings / Advanced / RSTP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig. 5.38: Menu Switch settings / Advanced / RSTP


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • RSTP enable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Enables RSTP protocol. When RSTP is enabled, the bridge is created and RSTP service is initiated. Should the unit be connected via two Ethernet cables (using Eth1 and Eth2 ports), the active participation of the RSTP protocol may be necessary. If the parameter is not enabled, the unit transfers the BPDU frames transparently.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          To enable proper RSTP functionality, these switch parameters has to be set:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Switch settings / Interface / Port advanced / Frame mode / p5 CPU: “ether type DSA”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Switch settings / Interface / Port advanced / Ether type / p5 CPU: “0xDADA”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Switch settings / Advanced / ATU settings / Reserved multicast to CPU: “Enable”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bridge priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The priority value is a number between 0 and 61440 in incremental steps of 4096, with a default value of 32768. Lower priority values are ‘better’. The bridge with the lowest priority value will be elected ‘root bridge’.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hello time [s]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The hello time is the time between each Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) that is sent on a port. Hello time is equal to 2 seconds by default.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Max age [s]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The max age timer controls the maximum length of time that passes before a bridge port saves its configuration BPDU information. This time is set to 20 sec by default.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Forward delay [s]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The forward delay is the time that is spent in the listening and learning state. This time is equal to 15 sec by default.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Algorithm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This parameter sets the bridge’s spanning tree algorithm to operate in normal (RSTP) or force it to operate in slow (STP) mode. In normal mode, RSTP reverts back to STP on ports where it sees other hosts operating in STP mode.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Port name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Identification of the internal switch port. The switch ports are connected to an external port or to an internal device (radio modem, management CPU).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Eth1 (port1) — The external port (with RJ45 interface) labeled “ETH1+POE”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Eth2 (port10) — The external port (with SFP interface) labeled “ETH2”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • CPU (port0) — The internal port to management CPU.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Air (port9) — The internal port to radio modem, i.e. link to the peer unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Port priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The ports’ priority value is a number between 0 and 240 in increments of 16, with a default value of 128.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Path cost
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Path cost indicates “suitability of the link for the data transmission” and it is used in networks with redundant connections to choose the best route for packets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Path cost can be set automatically or manually. Entering the value of zero sets this parameter automatically. The automatic setup is based on link speed. It is calculated as 20 Tbits/sec divided by a link capacity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For manual settings, lower value increase probability the link is chosen as a primary one for the data transmission.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Edge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Selecting the checkbox sets the port as an “edge” port. If a port is an edge port it is assumed to be a leaf link in the graph, not connected to any other bridges. Receiving any STP BPDU’s on a port configured as an edge port temporarily overrides edge port behavior for the port.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • MAC address
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The ports’ default MAC addresses are the same as the MAC address of the unit. Value can be overwritten by a user.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.6. Tools

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.6.1. Maintenance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.6.1.1. Backup, Default settings, Diagnostic package, MIB

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Menu Tools / Maintenance / Backup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig. 5.39: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Backup


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Settings (Local & Peer)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Saving and restoring whole link (both units) configuration. User accounts are not affected by those functions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Backup to external file
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Configuration is saved to backup file which is downloaded to management PC. The backup file name contains the date, time and RAy serial number as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          yyyyMMddhhmm_SN_cnf_backup.tgz.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          It can be either a full configuration or a difference to the default configuration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Upload file
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Upload configuration from a backup file into buffer. The current unit configuration is not affected. The uploaded configuration can be displayed using “Show backup” button on particular configuration screens. The configuration of the entire unit can be restored (from this buffer) using “Restore” button below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Restore from file
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            After the configuration backup file has been loaded into the unit buffer (using Upload button above), the whole unit configuration can be restored using Restore button.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Settings – Internal backup (Local)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It is possible to make a temporary backup of the unit configuration. The backup is stored directly in the unit FLASH memory.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The internal backup is deleted if factory settings or firmware upgrade are performed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Internal backup
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Make a temporary backup of the unit configuration locally in the unit FLASH memory.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Internal restore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Restore (from the unit FLASH memory) the temporary backup of the unit configuration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Internal restore – HW button
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The local temporary backup of the unit configuration can be restored using the hardware button. The HW button is located next to the USB connector within the slot marked “S”.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The rollback and reboot functions are suppressed while restoring from internal backup. All changes are applied immediately. Should the time zone be changed, the unit has to be restarted for changes to take effect.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Press the HW button for the required time interval of 5 seconds. The button being pressed is confirmed by the Status LED flashing green. After the 5 seconds guard time, the unit restores to customer settings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Users (Local)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Saving and restoring user accounts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The internal backup is deleted if factory settings or firmware upgrade are performed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Backup to external file
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Backup local unit user accounts to an external file. The file is downloaded to management PC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The internal backup is deleted if factory settings or firmware upgrade are performed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Upload file & restore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Restoring user accounts from an external backup file.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Default settings

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Applying default values to configuration parameters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Restore link settings (Local & Peer)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Whole set of parameters from the Link settings menu tree is affected.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Restore switch settings (Local)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Whole set of parameters from the Switch settings menu tree is affected.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Restore default settings (Local) – HW button
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        It is possible to bring the unit to Default settings by holding the hardware button depressed during unit’s boot. The HW button is located next to the USB connector within the slot marked “S”.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Disconnect the power supply from the unit. Keep the HW button depressed while reconnecting the power. The LED marked SYS starts to flash red after a few seconds. Keep the HW button pressed another 5 seconds until the red status LED stops flashing. The unit’s boot up sequence continues and Default settings are applied.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Should the HW button be released when the status LED is in the red flashing phase (but before the 5 s guard time), the unit stays in Service mode. Please, leave this mode by rebooting the unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Factory settings (Local)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Applying Factory settings to Local unit. The unit reboots itself after applying all changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Restore factory settings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Applying Factory settings to Local unit. The unit reboots itself after applying all changes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Using the factory settings function will revert the unit to its original state. All configuration items, user accounts, measured values and system messages (logs) will be irreversibly deleted. This task takes a few minutes to complete. Do not interrupt the power supply during the operation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Diagnostic package (Local & Peer)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        To facilitate communication with the technical support you can create an archive file with detailed information about the unit. If connection with Peer unit is active the diagnostic information from both units are saved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Create & download file
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Saving a file with information about the unit (Local and Peer).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This task takes a few minutes to complete.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Management Information Base

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          To facilitate communication with the technical support you can create an archive file with detailed information about the unit. If connection with Peer unit is active the diagnostic information from both units are saved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • SNMP MIB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Saving a file with SNMP MIB (Management Information Base) table. The downloaded file is identical to the SNMP MIB table file downloaded from web (section Downloads) for relevant FW version.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.6.1.2. Feature keys

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Menu Tools / Maintenance / Feature keys

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fig. 5.40: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Feature keys


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The sub-set of RAy parameters is affected by use of Feature keys.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The feature keys limiting data transfer speed [Mbps] and/or few other parameters and functionality of the RAy unit are available. Speed of the transferred data is determined by a combination of the radio channel bandwidth (parameter Bandwidth [MHz]) and modulation order (parameter TX modulation). The Feature key limiting the data transfer speed enables only certain combinations of the channel bandwidth and modulation order to get the data transfer speed according to the Feature key. The data transfer speed is typically slightly higher than declared.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          When installed, the Feature key is activated after the unit restart. The unit can be restarted using the Tools – Maintenance – Restart. Choose the Restart mode – warm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Local

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Shows current status of installed Feature keys on Local unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Feature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of the function controlled by the Feature key.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Available feature keys:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • speed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Tx power

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sync Eth

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • AES encryption etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Limit / Enable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The numeric value set by the key.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Remove
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The specific Feature key can be deleted using the Delete button. The parameters controlled by this Feature key are reset to their default values after the unit restart. Only Local feature keys could be deleted. To be able to manipulate the Feature keys, it is necessary to access directly the management system of the relevant unit – use the IP address of the relevant unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Before deleting the feature key it is recommended to configure the link such a way that it does not require this feature key.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Upload local feature keys

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Feature keys are installed into the unit from binary files. Installed Feature keys are activated after the unit restart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Button ‘Open file upload’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Opens a dialog for the Feature key binary file selection.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Use the file as it is (do not unpack).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Peer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Shows current status of installed Feature keys on Peer unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Items ‘Feature’ and ‘Limit / Enable’ have identical meaning as for the local unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.6.1.3. Firmware

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Menu Tools / Maintenance / Firmware

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fig. 5.41: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Firmware


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If a new firmware version is released for the given microwave link type, you can upload it to your RAy units.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Info
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Radio SW version
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Information about the Software Defined Radio (SDR) version on the Local and Peer units.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Firmware version
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Information about the current firmware package version on the Local and Peer units.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Firmware upgrade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Firmware upload
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Open file upload – opens a dialog for uploading firmware package to the unit buffer. Only after firmware has been prepared in the buffer, can you perform the actual upgrade.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Use the file as it is (do not unpack).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • File name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of the uploaded firmware file.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • File size [B]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Size of the uploaded firmware file (in bytes).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Version in buffer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Information about firmware version prepared in the buffer for installation into the unit (Local, Peer). This firmware must first be prepared in the Firmware upload section (see above).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clean buffer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  You can use the Clean buffer button to delete prepared firmware package in the buffer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Force upgrade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Force mode blocks all safety and compatibility checks and may result in breaking your unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    [Important]Important

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    You should not use force mode until instructed to do so by the technical support.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Firmware upgrade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Use the Upgrade button to perform the firmware installation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Installing the firmware takes about 45 seconds (including reboot). During this time, transmission of user data is interrupted. Do not interrupt the power supply during firmware installation!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.6.1.4. Radio adaptation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Menu Tools / Maintenance / Radio adaptation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fig. 5.42: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Radio adaptation


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Band index
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Band index
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Band index displays radio channel assignment of local unit transmitter (Tx) for L (Lower) or U (Upper) part of the frequency band.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Change button
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Change button changes the band index (L -> U and U-> L). If units are linked together both Local and Peer units are changed in the same time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Change button applies only for 17 GHz and 24 GHz links, where hardware of each RAy unit is universal for the entire frequency band. Changing band index is allowed only in symmetric mode (i.e. Tx bandwidth is the same as Rx bandwidth).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      After restoring factory settings Band index is set to its pre-defined state L or U as typed on Product Label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      When the radio type is changed, the “Link settings” menu parameters of each unit are reset to default values except login / password details.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Frequency tables

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The microwave link contains one or more frequency tables (called rcinfo). These tables contain the following information:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • List of available bandwidths and modulations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Assignment of frequencies to the channels and the names of these channels. These channels are used to configure radio parameters of the link (see screen Link settings / Radio).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Default values of radio parameters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A set of radio parameters, needed for the ATPC operation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Just one frequency table can be active in a given time. Tables can not be modified by a user or combined together. If a different radio parameters or channel names has to be used (for example due to new telecommunication regulation), please contact your supplier and ask for a proper FW with the frequency table for your situation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Active
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of the currently used frequency table in format <name:version>.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • New
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Select a new frequency table. Available tables are displayed in format <name:version>. Use the Change button to change the table.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Using the wrong frequency table can lead to violation of the corresponding telecommunications regulations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Compatibility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Unit ’24S’ compatibility (formerly ‘Unit S mode’)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This parameter is available only for newly deployed 24 GHz units without the ‘S’ label in Product code (i.e. ’24S’) – as visible on Production label and in Ordering codes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When “active”, the unit behaves like the unit ’24S’ (it can establish a link only with another ’24S’ unit). For a link between the units without the ‘S’ label, this compatibility needs to be disabled (“off”). The unit reboots after changing this parameter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Used only if a combination of different hardware variants of units have to be used to set up the link together. For more info see the topic ‘Setting up a link between RAy3-24S and other hardware variant of RAy3-24‘ in chapter Troubleshooting.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wrong setting of compatibility causes the link is not established (both units remain in status ‘Connecting’).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.6.1.5. Restart

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Menu Tools / Maintenance / Restart

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fig. 5.43: Menu Tools / Maintenance / Restart


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Target
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chose the unit(s) to be restarted: Local or Peer or both.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Restart mode
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chose the type of the restart:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Warm — Reboot only management system and web interface.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cold — Restart the whole unit as if power was removed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • System restart
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pushing the “Restart” button performs the selected restart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.2. Live data

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.2.1. Bar indicators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / Live Data / Bar indicators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.44: Menu Tools / Live Data / Bar indicators


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Graphical indication of RSS and MSE.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Refresh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                One-time update of displayed values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Start, Stop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Start button starts automatic update of displayed values with a period of 1 second. Stop button stops refreshing of both graphs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Antenna alignment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Link “go to antenna alignment screen” activates Antenna Alignment Tool (black page ).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.2.2. Antenna Alignment Tool

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Antenna Alignment Tool supports interactive antenna alignment. RSS and MSE are displayed for both local and peer unit. A selected value can be indicated in large font and acoustically. Values are refreshed 10× per second.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When performing antenna alignment, both ATPC and ACM functions should be disabled; their automatic behavior interferes with the alignment process which is based on finding the maximum signal strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The tool is accessed via e.g. http://192.168.169.169/tk for standard Ethernet ports, and via http://172.17.17.17/tk for connections using USB/WiFi or USB/Eth. The Antenna Alignment Tool does not require user authentication.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Antenna Alignment Tool

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.45: Antenna Alignment Tool


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Red strip (top of the page)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • + — Increases the number of displayed parameters

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • x — Decreases the number of displayed parameters

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • text — Local Station name (e.g. RAy3-17 -L)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 3.5 MHz Ok — Channel width
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Link connected (green icon).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Peer values (see below) are visible when the connection between Local and Peer unit has been established.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Local, Peer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • QPSK-2048QAM — Current modulation of the Tx signal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • ACM, ATPC — Status of ACM + ATPC (red color warns ACM or ATPC is enabled).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Go to unit management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Link to the full configuration interface of the microwave unit; user authentication is required.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • -46.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Actual RSS [dBm] or MSE value. The selected value is chosen by clicking/tapping on the respective value below the main display.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Exclamation icon !
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An exclamation icon is displayed when either Local or Peer unit has ACM or ATPC enabled. ACM and ATPC mode should be disabled; they can affect signal strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Icon of speaker
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Acoustic indication for local RSS value ON/OFF.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The TONE or BEEP signal is supplemented with voice output every 10 seconds, notifying signal strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • TONE / BEEP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Select the sound generated.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The better the signal, the higher the frequency.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The acoustic indication is linked to the value on the main display.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If a WiFi connection is used to access Antenna Alignment, the ‘noise’ audio signal is used to notify low quality or low stability of the WiFi signal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • COARSE / FINE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choose the scale of acoustic indication.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • COARSE — for approximate alignment. Range of tones (or frequency of beeps) is equal to -100 to -30 dBm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • FINE — for a more precise alignment. Range of tones (or frequency of beeps) is equal to ±10 dBm from the value sampled at the moment when the FINE button was pressed).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • RSS, MSE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Values RSS and MSE for local and peer unit (4 values in total):

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • First column — Best values recorded

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Second column — Current values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The value to be displayed on the main display is selected by a tapping/clicking on the respective value.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Reset peaks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Best values history is cleared.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.2.3. Frequency spectrum analyzer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / Live Data / Frequency spectrum analyzer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.46: Menu Tools / Live Data / Frequency spectrum analyzer


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A very useful tool for identifying in-band interference and locating a free channel. It is not a full-blown spectrum analyzer as it scans the spectrum with 2 MHz channel resolution. The accuracy of measured results is given by the accuracy of measuring RSS.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Enable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Opening analyzer functions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Start
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Interrupts communication on the link and starts scanning frequencies in the band.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Spectrum measure time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Selection of measurement length in range:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mute peer TX
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The deactivation of Peer station transmission during measurement.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                single sweep … up to 15 min

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Single sweep takes about 2 seconds for the whole band scan in 17 or 24 GHz (only 200-250 MHz wide). For licensed bands it takes adequately longer – according the width of RX and TX parts of the band.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The link is automatically re-established after it is finished.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [Warning]Warning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Running spectrum measurement causes interruption of user data flow between stations!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Interruption of the scan before selected measure time can be achieved anytime by visiting any of the Link menu settings and select Refresh. This restores the configuration connection (message Peer: n/a).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.2.4. Radio loopback

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / Live Data / Radio loopback

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.47: Menu Tools / Live Data / Radio loopback


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Radio loopback measurement serves as a check of quality of the antenna connection to the microwave unit and the quality of the antenna itself. Only available for the 17 GHz and 24 GHz units. The unit measures the strength of the signal received from its own transmitter. The lower the signal level received, the better the antenna quality. The user data transmission is interrupted during the measurement. The remote transmitter (Peer unit) is temporarily muted not to interfere with the measurement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bandwidth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Channel widths used for transmitting.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Measure frequency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                By default, the Radio loopback is measured with the current frequency of the transmitter. Measurement can be performed with the frequency of the receiver. Both results may differ slightly because the antenna parameters are frequency dependent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mute peer TX
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The deactivation of Peer station transmission during measurement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • TX to RX isolation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The result of the Radio loopback measurement is given as the ratio between the levels of the transmitted and received signal. The ratio is given as a logarithmic value in [dB]. The higher the number, the better the antenna quality. Here are the thresholds for evaluating the results:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • less than 40 dB – insufficient

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • from 40 dB to 50 dB – reasonable

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • more than 50 dB – excellent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                [Note]Note

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Possible reasons for isolation ratio lower than 50 dB are listed below. They are ordered according the probability of occurrence. Typical methods of repair are described as well:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Silicon grease in the waveguide => clean the antenna waveguide and the neck of the unit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Antenna for another frequency band => check the type of antenna and replace it with a suitable one

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Frozen (dewy) antenna => after climatic conditions improvement everything returns to original values (antenna heating would eliminate that – quite useful in mountainous areas)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Reflective (metal) surface near the antenna (even outside of the Fresnel zone) => change of antenna position

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mechanically damaged antenna dish or radome => inspection of the antenna, cleaning or replacement of the radome

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lost mirror at the end of a waveguide inside the antenna => inspection of the antenna interior, its repair or replacement

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Damaged polarization transducer inside the unit => repair of the unit at the manufacturer (this never occurred, yet)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.3. History

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The unit continuously stores information about the values of important variables. Stored values can be viewed using three methods – Thumbnails, Viewer and Data

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.3.1. Thumbnails

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Preview all values for the last 24 hours. Click on a thumbnail to open the viewer with a chart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / History / Thumbnails

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.48: Menu Tools / History / Thumbnails


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Instantaneous value of temperature inside the unit. Measured on the modem board.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Voltage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Instantaneous value of unit supply voltage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • RSS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Received signal strength.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Signal quality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Signal quality of the received signal. It is negative value of Mean Square Error (MSE, the inverse to often used SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • BER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Instantaneous bit error rate on link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Net bitrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Instantaneous transmission capacity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Eth1, Eth2 in throughput
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Instantaneous speed (20s average) of incoming user data on the user Ethernet port.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Eth1, Eth2 out throughput
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Instantaneous speed (20s average) of outgoing user data on the user Ethernet port.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • TX power
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Instantaneous value of transmission power.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.3.2. Viewer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Detailed graphical view of one or two selected values for the given interval. You can choose to view data from Local or Peer or both.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / History / Viewer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.49: Menu Tools / History / Viewer


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The values are saved in the following resolutions and history lengths:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Interval 1 hour – 3 hours, Resolution 1 minute, length of history 7 days
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Interval 6 hours – 4 days, Resolution 15 minutes, length of history 30 days
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Interval 1 week – 6 months, Resolution 1 day, length of history about 180 days

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Interval
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Selecting width of interval to be displayed. Data is displayed in a suitable grid based on the interval width (see above).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More options:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Previous — Move by one width of selected interval towards older values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Next — Move by one width of selected interval towards newer values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Last — Move to the newest values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Primary Y axis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Selecting one of the observed values:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Temperature, Voltage, RSS, Signal quality, BER, Net bitrate, Ethernet in throughput, Ethernet out throughput, TX power

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Secondary Y axis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Selecting a second value:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • None, Temperature, Voltage, RSS, Signal quality, BER, Net bitrate, Ethernet in throughput, Ethernet out throughput, TX power

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.3.3. Data

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Numerical view of all values

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / History / Data

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.50: Menu Tools / History / Data


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Quantities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Detailed graphical view of values for selected interval.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Plotted — Shows only the values that are selected for the graph.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Local, Peer, All — Shows all logged values. Filtering of values from local, remote or both.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Interval, Previous, Next, Last
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See explanation of those in Viewer section above.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.4. Logs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Shows internal unit logs. Individual tabs allow total or filtered view.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / Logs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.51: Menu Tools / Logs


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When you first open the screen, it is necessary to start browsing logs by pressing the Refresh button.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Maximum length of displayed logs is 250 entries. If you need to display longer history, use CLI interface instead.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Overall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Displays the last 3 records from all types of logs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Local alarms, Peer alarms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Alarms from Local or Peer unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Local events, Peer events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Events from Local or Peer unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Local system, Peer system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                System events from Local or Peer unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Listings of all logs can be filtered. Filtering string is entered in to the upper left corner window and Filter button is pushed. For example, you want to know when the configuration of the unit was modified: On the Local events screen, enter Configuration and hit Enter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plain text or regular expressions can be used for filtering (JavaScript format).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.5. Programs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.5.1. Ping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Ping tool allows sending ICMP pings to a selected address

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / Programs / Ping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.52: Menu Tools / Programs / Ping


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Destination
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Destination address in dotted decimal notation. The default address 127.0.0.1 is the localhost address – i.e. the unit itself.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Size [B]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Length of sent data 7 to 1500 bytes, 8 bytes of the header will be added.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Count
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of sent pings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Start the test by clicking on Send. The period for sending pings is constant: 1000 ms. The result is displayed in the text window.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.6.5.2. CLI

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Web interface for executing non-interactive scripts and programs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Menu Tools / Programs / CLI

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.53: Menu Tools / Programs / CLI


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Manage custom commands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Using “Open file upload”/”upload” the user can upload scripts to the unit. The uploaded file can be either a single shell script with extension .sh (e.g. my_script.sh) or package with multiple scripts with extension .tar.gz or .tgz created using tar.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                “Delete all” removes all custom scripts from the unit.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Custom scripts are located in /home/shared/bin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Custom commands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A custom script can be selected here and initial comments/help is shown.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • CLI commands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A CLI command can be selected here. You can use cli_help for listing all CLI commands or <command> –help to obtain detailed help on a selected command.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Command
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Command line for writing commands with parameters. You can use any non-interactive program/script according to your permissions. Command is executed by pushing the “Run” button.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Format of custom scripts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Custom scripts must be a shell script with preamble #!/bin/sh and extension sh.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Blocks of lines beginning with the comment sign (#) after preamble are considered to be help and are listed when the script is selected in the web interface.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Scripts should not be interactive as there is no possibility to send a response from the web interface. All script options should be implemented as parameters.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Syntax should be valid for interpret shell ash from BusyBox v1.20.1.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Example of custom script

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #!/bin/sh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #script checks if service with the same name or vid already exists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #if not creates a new entry in VTU with given VID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #  input parameters:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #      service_name - name of the new service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #      VID - vid of the new service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #  return values:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #      0 - ok
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #      3 - bad parameter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #      5 - service already exists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #      6 - there already exists an entry with given VID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #     42 - other error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D42_NAME="$1"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D42_VID="$2"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D42N="service_data42"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              error()
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              {
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      echo "$D42N: Error: $*" >&2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              }
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              info()
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              {
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      echo "$D42N: $*" >&2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              }
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              die()
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              {
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      error "$*"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      exit 42 #error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              }
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              # basic check if not empty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              if [ -z "$D42_NAME" ]; then
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      error "Bad service name"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      exit 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              if [ -z "$D42_VID" ]; then
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      error "Bad service VID"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      exit 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D42_FOUND=$(cli_nw_get --vtu all | grep "$D42_NAME")
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              if [ -n "$D42_FOUND" ]; then
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      error "Service(s) with name $D42_NAME found"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      echo $D42_FOUND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      exit 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D42_VALID=$(cli_nw_get --vtu "$D42_VID" | sed -n 's/^valid=\(.\+\)$/\1/p')
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              if [ "pre_$D42_VALID" = "pre_true" ]; then
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      error "VID $D42_VID is used"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cli_nw_get --vtu "$D42_VID"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      exit 6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D42_VALID=$(cli_nw_get --stu 1 | sed -n 's/^valid=\(.\+\)$/\1/p')
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              if [ "pre_$D42_VALID" = "pre_false" ]; then
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      info "Creating STU entry with SID=1"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cli_nw_set --stu 1 'label="D42_auto", port_state=["disabled", "disabled", "forwarding", "disabled", "disabled", "forwarding", "forwarding"]'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              die "Failed to create STU entry"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              info "Creating service \"$D42_NAME\" with VID=$D42_VID"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cli_nw_set --vtu "$D42_VID" label="$D42_NAME" 'fid=0, sid=1, pri_override=true, priority=5, policy=false, member_tag=["unmodify", "unmodify", "tag", "unmodify", "not_member", "not_member", "unmodify"]'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      die "Failed to create service \"$D42_NAME\" with VID=$D42_VID"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.7. Help

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Help menu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.54: Help menu


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Help from Help menu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Help screen displays contents of the embedded help. The help text is displayed in the whole configuration window. The text structure corresponds to individual configuration screens. Every item of this Help opens the specific help menu.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CLI help visible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Allows displaying of the CLI help with examples.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Third party
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              documentation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Allows displaying references to the third party documentation (e.g. internal switch documentation).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Help from configuration menu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Clicking the name of the specific parameter in the configuration menu brings up the help belonging to this parameter. The help text is displayed in the pop-up window:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Parameter help

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.55: Parameter help


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is a Go to help link within the help text. It displays the whole configuration menu help:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Configuration menu help

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.56: Configuration menu help


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is a link on each help screen which points to the respective configuration screen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Clicking the question mark icon in the upper right corner of the configuration screen brings a summary help for the configuration screen in the pop-up window:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Summary help

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 5.57: Summary help


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Help window can be moved by dragging the Hints bar. Resize it by dragging the bottom corner.