Diagnostics

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8. Diagnostics

8.1. Overview

The Overview windows shows the short view of the statistic over last 15 minutes (from the time of opening of the window or Refresh button pressed).

8.2. Events

This menu shows all events which occurs within the unit history.

For filtering of the events you can use the filtering tool. When no filter rules are used, the last 30 events will be displayed after Display button click.

Older events should be displayed using Load more button click, the events which occurs during the viewing of this window can be load by using Load newer button.

Alarms are displayed in red color, warnings in orange, notices in black and debugs in gray.

It is possible to change severities of individual events in the menu SETTINGS/Device/Events

8.3. Statistics

RipEX2 unit permanently monitors various system ‘channels’. There are several types of those channels: Physical interfaces (Ethernet ports, serial ports, radio interface, additional module interface (e.g. LTE module) when installed), virtual interfaces (e.g. VLAN interfaces) and HW sensors (CPU temperature, supply voltage, …). Monitored values are stored in the internal database.

Statistics page provides aggregated statistical data from this internal database. Data can be both displayed and downloaded in CSV format. This file format is suitable to be imported to any 3rd party spreadsheet program for further analysis.

There are two different options how to display statistics data:

  • Historical
    Statistics counters are aggregated over the defined time interval. The interval is defined by two time stamps “From” and “To”.

  • Differential
    Statistcs counters are aggregated between the counter reset and the current time (the moment when the Display button was pressed). Reset is triggered by a unit reboot or by the Reset statistics button.

    Reset statistics button – initiates the Differential statistic counters reset. Such a reset does not affect normal statistic counters – i.e. the Historical statistics is not affected by such a Reset at all.

Statistics data in the context of unit interfaces

Fig. 8.1: Statistics data in the context of unit interfaces


8.3.1. Parameters

Statistics data are always retrieved as aggregated for a certain time Interval. This Interval can be set by putting specific date and time into “From” and “To” fields, or using buttons “Last day”, “Last hour” or “More options” fast presets (from several minutes to several days). Button “Set Current Time” sets current time to both From and To fields to ease current unit status diagnostics.

There are following sets of statistical data available in the unit:

  • Radio interface statistics

  • Radio protocol statistics

  • Radio protocol non-addressable statistics

  • Radio signal statistics

  • Radio signal non-addressable statistics

  • Serial protocols statistics

  • Ethernet statistics

“Display” button then shows chosen data below. “Download Selected Data” button generates CSV (UTF-8 encoded) file of all chosen systems’ data and downloads them as files without displaying them. Both “Display” and “Download …” buttons send a request for the required set of statistics data to the unit. Retrieving and transferring of the data (over the radio channel) takes some time. Downloading the data is practical when the user needs to process them in a spreadsheet and wants to save some bandwidth. It is also recommended to use spreadsheet editor like Microsoft Excel or Apple Numbers to process statistics on mobile devices due to better user experience provided by the specialized apps.

8.3.2. Radio interface statistics

Radio interface statistics provides set of data monitoring the interface between the Router module (IP routing engine in the unit) and the Radio protocol module. It corresponds to monitoring Radio – Router.

Tx direction: from the Router module to the Radio protocol module. Rx direction: from the Radio protocol module to the Router module.

MAC address – MAC address of the IP packet. Source for Rx or destination for Tx packets.

IP address – translated MAC address when available. Address 0.0.0.0 is used as a placeholder if the translation is not available. If the Transparent protocol is used, the translation is not available at all.

UDP, TCP, ICMP, ARP – Packet count and amount of data in Bytes [B] for different protocol types. Amount of data is summed over the whole Layer 2 Ethernet frame (i.e. all IP headers are counted).

Other – Packets not handled by the previous counters (e.g. VLAN, services, GRE, IPsec (ESP), …)

8.3.3. Radio protocol statistics

Radio protocol statistics provides set of data monitoring the radio channel access protocol frames and events. It corresponds to monitoring Radio – Interface.

Frames which are not addressed to/from this unit are not handled (they do not affect any counter).

Rx direction: from the ‘air’ radio interface to the Radio protocol module. Tx direction: from the Radio protocol module to the radio interface.

Link address – Link address of the frame. Source for Rx or destination for Tx frames. This is a Link address assigned at the origin (input) – when entering, or at the target (output) – when leaving the radio network.

In case of Base driven protocol or Transparent protocol, this address pair is not modified when re-translated. As a result of this fact, the whole traffic to a remote station behind the re-translation is counted together in a line assigned to the remote station.

For the Link address:

In case of Base driven protocol – the Protocol address is used

IP address – translated MAC address when available. Address 0.0.0.0 is used as a placeholder if the translation is not available. If the Transparent protocol is used, the translation is not available at all.

Frame OK (Rx) – Correctly received data frames count.

Frame OK (Tx) – Correctly send data frames count. Control frames are not included. When ACK is on, only acknowledged frames are included. Re-translated data frames are not included.

Frame err (Rx) – Received corrupted data frames count (CRC error)

Frame lost (Tx) – Transmitted unacknowledged frames count. It happens when ACK is on and acknowledging frame was not received even when full number of re-transmission attempts was reached.

Frame dupl (Rx) – Received, but dropped, duplicated data frames count. ‘Duplicated’ frames are repeatedly received acknowledged frames.

Frame rep (Tx) – Repeated frames count (they can appear when ACK is on). Re-translated frames are not included.

Frame rej (Tx) – Rejected frames count (rejected just before transmission) – reason: buffer timeout. In case of Transparent protocol (Bridge mode) it happens when there is a collision during re-translation.

Packet rej (Rx) – Correctly received but rejected packets count – reason: impossible to decrypt or decompress.

Packet rej (Tx) – Rejected packets count (rejected before handed over to the transmitter) – reason: buffer overflow, buffer timeout.

Ctrl frames (Rx, Tx) – Received / transmitted control frames count.

Total (Rx) – Received frames count and amount of data in Bytes. Amount of data – for both Rx and Tx – is summed over the whole Layer 2 Ethernet frame (i.e. all IP headers are counted).

Total (Tx) – Transmitted frames count and amount of data in Bytes. Re-translated frames are included.

8.3.4. Radio protocol non-addressable statistics

Radio protocol ‘non-addressable’ statistics provides set of data monitoring the radio channel access protocol frames and events which can not be linked with any address (e.g. broadcasts). It corresponds to monitoring Radio – Interface.

False Sync – False synchronization incidents count

Phy header err – Packet reception failure count – reason: sub header error

Phy err – Packet reception failure count – reason: physical layer analysis error

Header err – Packet reception failure count – reason: header content error or CRC error.

Incompatible – Received incompatible frames count – reason: different radio protocol

Strange – Received unexpected frames count – reason: wrong addresses, wrong sequence etc. Valid for Base Driven Protocol only.

Unroutable – Packets counter which were scheduled for transmission but impossible to be forwarded to the Radio protocol – multiple reasons: e.g. the destination IP address is not known

8.3.5. Radio signal statistics

Radio signal statistics provides set of data monitoring the radio interface quantities and events. It corresponds to monitoring Radio – Interface.

Statistic data are collected by the frame source address – Link address, which is an address of the originating radio transmitter (unlike “Radio protocol statistics” where the Link address is an address of the unit where the packet entered the RipEX network).

There is a special address ‘RELAY’ to indicate frames coming from the re-translation unit in case of Base Driven Protocol operation.

Header count – Received headers count

RSS [dBm] – Radio Signal Strength – measured within the header reception

avg / dev / min / max – average / standard deviation / minimum / maximum

Phy header MSE [dB] – modulation Mean Squared Error – measured within the header reception

Freq offset [Hz] – Averaged frequency offset between the transmitter and the receiver station, measured by the receiver station.

Att1 [%] – First internal attenuator (15 dB) activated. Shown in percents of affected frames.

Att2 [dB] – Value of the 2nd internal attenuation applied.

Data count – Received complete frames (including data part) count. Frames with valid header CRC, but wrong data CRC are not counted

Data MSE [dB] – modulation Mean Squared Error – measured within the frame data part reception

8.3.6. Radio signal non-addressable statistics

Radio signal statistics provides set of data monitoring the radio interface quantities and events. This table contains measurements handled before the frame reception and measurements which can not be linked with any address (e.g. broadcasts). It corresponds to monitoring Radio – Interface.

Pre-frame – Values based on measurements handled before the frame reception

RSS [dBm] – Radio Signal Strength – measured short time just before the frame reception

Others – Values for frames which can not be linked with any address

8.3.7. Serial protocol statistics

Serial protocols statistics provides set of data monitoring the COM port(s) and Terminal server (s). Only enabled interfaces are displayed. The statistics counters are based on packets entering or leaving the COM port or Terminal server module. As a result of this the ‘count’ values correspond to the Protocol messages (the “Protocol” selected on the specific COM port or Terminal server). If the packet is ‘glued’ from the several frames, it is evaluated as a single packet. In case of COM port statistic, the summary of ‘Correct’ and ‘Drop’ Bytes provides the total amount of Bytes on the physical interface.

Rx direction: from the connected (at the COM or ETH port) external device to the RipEX unit (i.e. from the COM port module or Terminal server module to the Router module). Tx direction: from the RipEX unit to the external device.

Interface – Interface name

Correct (Rx, Tx) – Correctly received / transmitted packets count and amount of data in Bytes. Accepted by the COM port or Terminal server module – based on the selected Protocol processing. Amount of data – for both Correct and Drop counters – is affected by COM port data only (i.e. IP headers of the UDP frames created in the COM port module are NOT counted).

Drop (Rx, Tx) – Dropped received / transmitted packets – reason: corrupted frame, CRC error, wrong protocol message, unsupported protocol message.

8.3.8. Ethernet statistics

Ethernet statistics provides set of data monitoring the physical Ethernet ports. Only enabled interfaces are displayed.

Only correctly received frames are handled. The counters correspond to the specific IP protocol types.

Rx direction: from the physical Ethernet port to the RipEX unit (i.e. to the Router module). Tx direction: from the RipEX unit to the physical Ethernet port.

Interface – Interface name.

UDP, TCP, ICMP, ARP, VLAN, Multicast – Packet count and amount of data in Bytes [B] for different protocol types – IPv4 traffic. Amount of data – for all counters – is summed over the whole Layer 2 Ethernet frame (i.e. all IP headers are counted).

IPv4 other – IPv4 traffic not handled by the previous counters

IPv6 – IPv6 traffic counter

Other – Counter summing up the frames which were not handled by the previous counters – for example MPLS and GOOSE protocols.

8.4. Monitoring

Monitoring is an advanced on-line diagnostic tool, which enables a detailed analysis of communication over any of the RipEX2 router interfaces. In addition to all the physical interfaces (RADIO, ETHs, COMs, TSs), some internal interfaces between software modules can be monitored when such advanced diagnostics is needed.

Monitoring output can be viewed on-line or saved to a file in the RipEX2 (e.g. a remote RipEX2) and downloaded later on.

Interfaces

Fig. 8.2: Interfaces


8.4.1. Common parameters

  • Max. file size

    List box {1 kB, 10 kB, 50 kB, 100 kB, 500 kB, 1 MB, max (~2 MB)}, default = 100 kB

    When the selected “Time period” expires or the “Max. file size” has been reached, whichever event occurs first, the file is closed. The file can be downloaded later. Monitoring to the file will be implemented in future FW versions.

  • Time period

    List box {1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 1 hour, 3 hours, 24 hours, Off}, default = 5 min

    Please, see Max. file size description above for more details.

  • Show time difference

    List box {On, Off}, default = Off

    When On, the time difference between subsequent packets is displayed in the monitoring output.

  • Display

    List box {HEX, HEX+ASCII, ASCII}, default = HEX

  • Show output

    List box {On, Off}

    Enable/disable monitoring output on the local screen

  • Start monitoring / Stop monitoring button

    Starts / Stops monitoring according to set parameters

  • Clear button

    Clears local monitoring screen

8.4.2. Interfaces

Common parameters for several interfaces:

  • Rx enabled, Tx enabled

    List box {On, Off}, default=On

    A packet is considered a Tx one when it comes out from the respective software module (e.g. RADIO or Terminal Server) and vice versa. When an external interface (e.g. Interface COM) is monitored, the Tx also means packets being transmitted from the RipEX2 over the respective interface (Rx means “received”). Understanding the directions over the internal interfaces may not be that straightforward, please consult Fig. 8.2, “Interfaces” above for clarification.

  • All

    List box {On, Off}, default On

    Monitoring output can also be limited by IP protocol type. Select Off to be able to enable/disable specific protocol output individually – see next parameter(s).

  • UDP / TCP / ICMP / Other / ARP

    List box {On, Off}, default Off

    Monitoring output of specific IP protocol limitation.

  • Offset [B]

    Default = 0

    Number of bytes from the beginning of packet/frame, which will not be displayed – the monitoring output is truncated by ‘Offset’ bytes at the beginning of the message.

  • Length [B]

    Default = 100

    Number of bytes to be displayed from each packet/frame.

    Example: Offset=2, Length=4 means, that bytes from the 3rd byte to the 6th (inclusive) will be displayed:

    Data (HEX):                 01AB3798A28593CD6B96

    Monitoring output:                        3798A285

  • Bandwidth

    List box {LOW, NORMAL, HIGH, UNLIMITED}, default= NORMAL

    Monitoring bandwidth limit to prevent overload of management link between client PC and the RipEX2 unit. LOW (up to ~300 kb/s), NORMAL (up to ~800 kb/s), HIGH (up to ~2 Mb/s), UNLIMITED (up to ~8 Mb/s)

  • Source port (from) (to)

    TCP/UDP source port to be enabled/disabled in the monitoring output. Use “… (to)” parameter to specify range of ports <from – to>.

  • Destination port (from) (to)

    TCP/UDP destination port to be enabled/disabled in the monitoring output. Use “… (to)” parameter to specify range of ports <from – to>.

  • Dropped frames

    List box {On, Off}, default Off

    When On, monitoring shows packets which are dropped (e.g. CRC is not valid, buffer overflow, …).

ETH interfaces

  • Include management traffic

    List box {On, Off}, default = Off

    Enable/disable management packets monitoring output.

  • Include ETH headers

    List box {On, Off}, default = Off

    Enable/disable ETH headers monitoring output

  • Include reverse

    List box {On, Off}, default = Off

    Enable/disable reverse traffic (e.g. TCP reply to a request) monitoring.

  • Source IP / mask, Destination IP / mask

    Monitoring output can also be limited to a specific address range – Source and Destination IP address and mask can be used to define the required range.

Radio interface

  • Corrupted frames

    List box {On, Off}, default = On

    Corrupted (“header CRC error”, “data CRC error”, etc.) received frames monitoring output can be suppressed. This can be useful when the communication in the channel is heavily disturbed by interference or noise, resulting in „garbage” messages which can make the monitoring output difficult to read.

  • Other modes

    List box {On, Off}, default = Off

    When Promiscuous mode is enabled, the unit is capable to monitor (receive) frames from the other RipEX2 units even if the other unit(s) is(are) working in the other Unit mode (Bridge versus Router).

    Frames transmitted under another Unit mode may not be properly ‘analyzed’. In such a case frames are displayed in raw data format.

  • Include headers

    List box {None, Packet (IP), Frame (ETH)}, Default= None

    • None – Only the payload (L4) is displayed, e.g. the data part of a UDP datagram.

    • Packet (IP) – Headers up to a Network layer (L3) are included, i.e. the full IP packet is displayed.

    • Frame (ETH) – The full Ethernet frame (L2) is displayed, i.e. including the ETH header.

  • Promiscuous mode

    List box {On, Off}, default = Off

    • Off – only frames which are normally received by this unit, i.e. frames whose Radio IP destination equals to Radio IP address of this RipEX2 unit and broadcast frames are available for the monitoring. Monitoring filters are applied afterwards.

    • On – all frames detected on the Radio channel are available for the monitoring. Monitoring filters are applied afterwards.

  • Link Control Frames

    List box {On, Off}, default = Off

    • Off – Radio Link Control Frames (e.g. ACK frames) are never displayed.

    • On – Radio Link Control Frames are processed by monitoring. Monitoring filters are applied.

  • Source IP / mask, Destination IP / mask (router)

    Monitoring output can also be limited to a specific address range – Internal (router) Source and Destination IP address and mask can be used to define the required range.

  • Source IP / mask, Destination IP / mask (radio)

    Monitoring output can also be limited to a specific address range – Radio interface Source and Destination IP address and mask can be used to define the required range.

Menu DIAGNOSTICS/Monitoring/Advanced groups together all setting across all monitoring web pages, mentioned above, in one web page.

8.5. Tools

Available are all paremeters used by standard ICMP ping. Start / Stop button starts / stops pinging.

8.6. Support

  • Reboot button

    RipEX2 unit can be rebooted on request.

  • RF Transmission Test

    Pre-defined type of RF signal can be transmitted for a specific purpose.

  • Type

    List box {Random data, Carrier wave, Single tone}, default = Random data

    Type of transmitted signal during the test. In case of Single tone a frequency with an offset from the central frequency is transmitted.

  • Period [s]

    Number from 1 to 120 s

    Transmission test pre-set duration.

  • Start button

    Starts the transmission test

  • Stop button

    Allows to stop the test before the pre-set time.

8.7. Syslog

  • SYSLOG server IP – IP address of the remote Syslog server to which will be send logs with severity higher than severity set in the Max. severity

  • SYSTOG server Port – port used by the Syslog server

  • Max. severity – the events with set severity (and higher) will be send to the Syslog server

  • Login attempt – un login